Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA.
Clinical Microbiology Reviews (Impact Factor: 16). 08/1998; 11(3):480-96. DOI: 10.1016/S1045-1870(97)80003-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 25,000 deaths annually. The reasons for this resurgence and emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the waning years of the 20th century are complex and not fully understood, but demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure changes in the past 30 years have contributed greatly. This paper reviews the changing epidemiology of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever by geographic region, the natural history and transmission cycles, clinical diagnosis of both dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, serologic and virologic laboratory diagnoses, pathogenesis, surveillance, prevention, and control. A major challenge for public health officials in all tropical areas of the world is to develop and implement sustainable prevention and control programs that will reverse the trend of emergent dengue hemorrhagic fever.

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    ABSTRACT: Concurrent infection with two agents can result in an illness having overlapping symptoms creating a diagnostic dilemma for the treating physician. The symptoms of dengue may mimic other diseases such as leptospirosis, influenza A, Salmonella Typhi, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya and malaria. There is paucity of data regarding dengue and typhoid co- infection both in the developed and developing countries. This study attempts to find the current co- infection rates in North Delhi. This retrospective study was done between August and November 2013. Medical records of 659 patients exhibiting febrile illness who visited Kasturba Hospital were studied. Dengue specific IgM antibodies were detected by Dengue IgM antibody capture ELISA test. Serodiagnosis of Salmonella infection was conducted by Widal test in the hospital. Of the 659 febrile sera samples tested here, 141 (21.39%) tested positive for dengue. Of these 91 were females and 50 males. Of the dengue cases, eleven were co-infected with enteric fever (11/141= 7.8%). Maximum number of dengue positive cases seen in age group 0-10 y. Case Fatality Rate (CFR) was zero. Age groups of patients co-infected with dengue and typhoid were as follows: 0-10 y: 5, 11-20 y: 3, 21-30 y: 2, >60 y: 1. Co-infection should always be kept in mind while dealing with cases of dengue or enteric fever with or without atypical features. In order to reduce the burden of disease, along with improvement of sanitation and personal hygiene, emphasis should be given on vaccination against typhoid.
    Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR. 12/2014; 8(12):DC09-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an innovative new strategy designed to break the cycle of dengue transmission. There are two main mechanisms by which Wolbachia could achieve this: by reducing the level of dengue virus in the mosquito and/or by shortening the host mosquito’s lifespan. However, although Wolbachia shortens the lifespan, it also gives a breeding advantage which results in complex population dynamics. This study focuses on the development of a mathematical model to quantify the effect on human dengue cases of introducing Wolbachia into the mosquito population. The model consists of a compartment-based system of first-order differential equations; seasonal forcing in the mosquito population is introduced through the adult mosquito death rate. The analysis focuses on a single dengue outbreak typical of a region with a strong seasonally-varying mosquito population. We found that a significant reduction in human dengue cases can be obtained provided that Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes persist when competing with mosquitoes without Wolbachia. Furthermore, using the Wolbachia strain WMel reduces the mosquito lifespan by at most 10% and allows them to persist in competition with non-Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes. Mosquitoes carrying the WMelPop strain, however, are not likely to persist as it reduces the mosquito lifespan by up to 50%. When all other effects of Wolbachia on the mosquito physiology are ignored, cytoplasmic incompatibility alone results in a reduction in the number of human dengue cases. A sensitivity analysis of the parameters in the model shows that the transmission probability, the biting rate and the average adult mosquito death rate are the most important parameters for the outcome of the cumulative proportion of human individuals infected with dengue.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the burden of dengue in the patients visiting National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu from May to December, 2013. Serum samples were collected from patients suspected of dengue virus infection and tested by ELISA. Results: Among 266 patients suspected of dengue virus infection, 45 (16.9%) showed antidengue immunoglobulin M antibodies in serum. Males and economically active people were more infected and the maximum number of cases was during the month of October. Conclusions: This study revealed that the proportion of dengue was more in Kathmandu, especially among the economically active males. So, the control measures should be initiated targeting these groups of people.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 02/2015; 5(4):289-292. · 0.93 Impact Factor

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