Influences of thyroid stimulating hormone on cognitive functioning in very old age.
ABSTRACT This study investigated the relationship of thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) within normal ranges to cognitive performance in very old age. The participants (N = 200) were selected from a population-based study of nondemented persons aged 75 to 96 years (M = 83.9 years). Tasks assessing episodic memory, verbal fluency, visuospatial ability, short-term memory, and perceptual-motor speed were examined. Results indicated that T4 was unrelated to performance. However, TSH was positively related to episodic memory performance, and the effects were independent of the influence of age, level of education, and depressive mood symptoms. There was no reliable effect of TSH on verbal fluency, short-term memory, perceptual-motor speed, or visuospatial functioning. The influence of TSH on episodic memory was interpreted in terms of its potential effects on encoding and consolidation processes.
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ABSTRACT: Context:Recent evidence indicates that thyroid hormones may be closely linked to cognition among adults.Objective:We investigated associations between thyroid hormones and cognitive performance, while testing effect modification by sex, race and elevated depressive symptoms (EDS).Design:This cross-sectional study used extensive data from the HANDLS study.Setting:Baltimore City, MD, 2004-2009.Participants:U.S. adults aged 30-64y. Sample size ranged from 1,275 to 1,346.Main outcome measures:Outcomes included thirteen cognitive test scores spanning domains of learning/memory, language/verbal, attention, visuo-spatial/visuo-construction, psychomotor speed, executive function, and mental status.Results:Within reference ranges, and after Bonferroni correction, elevated free thyroxine (fT4) was associated with better performance on tests of visuo-spatial/visuo-construction ability (overall, women and African-Americans), learning/memory (women and African-Americans); whereas a higher total thyroxine (tT4) level was associated with better performance in the domain of psychomotor speed (individuals without EDS) and a higher level of both fT4 and tT4 was linked to better language/verbal test performance among men. In contrast, higher T3(%uptake) was related to better performance on tests of visuo-spatial/visuo-construction ability and psychomotor speed among Whites. When comparing above reference range to within in the overall population, and after Bonferroni correction, within reference range fT4 was linked to better performance on visuo-spatial/visuo-constrution ability and psychomotor speed, while being below the normal range thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level (compared to the reference range) was linked to better performance in domains of psychomotor speed and attention.Conclusions:Thyroid hormones and cognition are closely linked, differentially by sex, race and EDS status.The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 05/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Context:Overt thyroid disease is associated with profound adverse health outcomes; however, data are conflicting for studies of borderline/subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Many studies of subclinical thyroid disease have had low power and were prone to selection bias. In contrast, large datasets are available from community studies in healthy individuals. Studies of the effects of variation of thyroid function across the reference range on health outcomes in these populations may provide useful information regarding thresholds for treatment of abnormal thyroid function.Evidence Acquisition:MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Controlled Trials Register were searched for articles studying the effect of variation in thyroid hormone parameters within the reference range on cardiovascular, bone, metabolic, pregnancy, neurological, and psychological outcomes.Evidence Synthesis:Higher TSH/lower thyroid hormone levels are associated with more cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events and worse metabolic parameters and pregnancy outcomes, whereas lower TSH/higher thyroid hormone levels are associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture risk. The evidence base was good for cardiovascular, metabolic, bone, and pregnancy outcomes; however, high-quality data remained lacking for neurological and psychological outcomes.Conclusions:Common variations in persons with thyroid function in the normal range are associated with adverse health outcomes. These data suggest, by extrapolation, that carefully monitored treatment of even modest elevations of TSH may have substantial health benefits. Appropriately powered large-scale clinical trials analyzing the risks vs benefits of treating subclinical thyroid disease are required to determine whether these benefits can be achieved with levothyroxine therapy.The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 07/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attention disorders are common symptoms in patients with untreated hyperthyroidism. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether they represent a global attention deﬁcit or selective impairment of attention networks. Thirty-seven patients with hyperthyroidism were recruited and underwent the Attention Network Test (ANT), which provided measures of three independent attention networks (alerting, orienting and executive control), before being treated with methimazole. This study demonstrated that patients with untreated hyperthyroidism had significant deficits in the alerting and executive control networks. Interestingly, a significant positive association was also found between T4 level and the value of the executive network in patients with hyperthyroidism. These results suggest that the patients with hyperthyroidism may not just exist a specific impairment of attention networks, and there was some relationship between the level of T4, not T3 or TSH, and the value of the executive control network in patients with hyperthyroidism.Neuroscience letters. 05/2014;