A simple method for assessing copper-mediated oxidation of very-low-density lipoprotein isolated by rapid ultracentrifugation
ABSTRACT The association of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) with atherosclerosis remains controversial. However, studies have shown that oxidative modification of VLDL can promote foam cell formation, leading to the development of atherosclerosis. A rapid method is described which will allow the significance of VLDL oxidation to be assessed in clinical studies. VLDL was isolated from heparinized plasma by a 1-h, single spin ultracentrifugation. Total protein was standardized to 25 mg/L. Oxidation was promoted by the addition of copper ions (17.5 mumol/L, final concentration) incubated at 37 degrees C. Conjugated diene production was followed at 234 nm. Total assay preparation time was 2 h. Urate greatly inhibited the oxidation of VLDL and was successfully removed by size exclusion chromatography. VLDL isolated from frozen plasma (-70 degrees C) was stable for 15 weeks. This simple, rapid method for the isolation of VLDL may be applied to assess the significance of VLDL oxidation in disease.
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ABSTRACT: Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is associated with raised triglycerides and increased very low density lipoprotein cholesterol. The aim of this study was to assess if very low density lipoprotein subfraction composition and potential to oxidise were altered in this condition. Very low density lipoprotein was separated into four subfractions (A-->D) by a novel, rapid ultracentrifugation procedure. Analysis of each subfraction included lipid and fatty acid composition. Preformed peroxides were measured spectrophotometrically and conjugated dienes were used as an indicator of in vitro lipid oxidation. In all results we compared patient and control subfractions. Mean fasting plasma glucose was 8.9 +/- 2.0 mmol/l in patients vs 5.1 +/- 0.4 mmol/l in control subjects (p < 0.001); patient HbA1c was 7.6 +/- 1.4%. Patient total lipid standardised for apo B was higher than controls in subfractions A, B and C; A, 201 vs 60; B, 191 vs 40; C, 63 vs 21; D, 29 vs 34 micromol lipid per mg apo B (p < 0.05). Preformed peroxides were higher in all patient subfractions compared with controls: A, 340 vs 48; B, 346 vs 42; C, 262 vs 28; D, 54 vs 16 nmol per mg apo B (p < 0.001). Patient subfractions A and D were more susceptible to in vitro oxidation. Monounsaturated fatty acids were lower in patients subfractions, 35.2 vs 36.7; B, 35.1 vs 38.7; C, 34.4 vs 36.5; D, 33.0 vs 35.5 as per cent total (p < 0.05). These results indicate abnormalities in very low density lipoprotein subfraction composition and oxidation profile in Type II diabetic subjects, which are characteristic of more atherogenic particles and that may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease in these patients.Diabetologia 05/2000; 43(4):485-93. DOI:10.1007/s001250051333 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The atherogenic oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein is suggested to occur in the aortic intima. There is reasonable evidence to suggest that antioxidants might be beneficial in preventing or retarding the progression of atherosclerosis. Exercise, estrogens, and substitution of polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat are beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Yet, paradoxically, they are capable of inducing an oxidative stress. To reconcile with this paradox, we postulate that under certain conditions an oxidative stress might be beneficial by inducing antioxidant enzymes in arterial cells. However, those with genetic deficiency in antioxidant enzymes or those who poorly respond to oxidative stress or those with overwhelming plasma oxidative stress might need additional antioxidant protection.Free Radical Research 10/2000; 33(3):197-215. DOI:10.1080/10715760000301381 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: VLDLs, synthesized and released by the liver, are a heterogeneous group of particles of varying composition and metabolic fates. A method is described for the rapid isolation of VLDL into four subfractions (A-D) and assessment of their susceptibility to oxidation. The total isolation procedure required less than 3.5 h, and was achieved by gradient ultracentrifugation. Each subfraction was assessed for triglyceride, cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) composition and for the presence of contaminants such as albumin and urate. The oxidation potential, in the presence of copper ions, of each subfraction was also assessed. This rapid procedure produced VLDL fractions analogous to those produced by a previously reported but more prolonged isolation method. Comparison of the two procedures demonstrated that lipid and apoB were similar, while the rapid procedure produced subfractions void of albumin and urate contamination and lower in preformed hydroperoxides. Compositional changes were found between the subfractions: as the subfractions became smaller and more dense (A-->D), there was a decrease in the ratio of triglyceride to apoB and an increase in the ratio of cholesterol to apoB, also arachidonic acid was increased in subfraction D compared with subfractions A, B, and C. The smaller subfractions were more susceptible to oxidation, a trend similar to that reported previously for the oxidation of LDL subfractions.The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2002; 43(5):824-31. · 4.73 Impact Factor