A simple method for assessing copper-mediated oxidation of very-low-density lipoprotein isolated by rapid ultracentrifugation.
ABSTRACT The association of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) with atherosclerosis remains controversial. However, studies have shown that oxidative modification of VLDL can promote foam cell formation, leading to the development of atherosclerosis. A rapid method is described which will allow the significance of VLDL oxidation to be assessed in clinical studies. VLDL was isolated from heparinized plasma by a 1-h, single spin ultracentrifugation. Total protein was standardized to 25 mg/L. Oxidation was promoted by the addition of copper ions (17.5 mumol/L, final concentration) incubated at 37 degrees C. Conjugated diene production was followed at 234 nm. Total assay preparation time was 2 h. Urate greatly inhibited the oxidation of VLDL and was successfully removed by size exclusion chromatography. VLDL isolated from frozen plasma (-70 degrees C) was stable for 15 weeks. This simple, rapid method for the isolation of VLDL may be applied to assess the significance of VLDL oxidation in disease.
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ABSTRACT: Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, and before and following intervention. The first group consisted of 12 participants who completed a 12 week control phase followed by 12 weeks of chronic exercise at 65% HRmax for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week, while ingesting 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of 12 participants who completed the same 12 week control phase, but this was followed by 12 weeks of 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid supplementation only (no exercise). The main findings show a comparatively greater rate of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in the group consisting of α-lipoic acid only (p < 0.05 vs. pre intervention), although total oxidant status was lower post intervention (p < 0.05 vs. baseline) in this group. However, exercise and α-lipoic acid in combination attenuates LDL oxidation. Furthermore, in the α-lipoic acid supplement plus exercise training group, total antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (p < 0.05 vs. baseline and pre intervention). Body fat percentage and waist and hip circumference decreased following exercise training (p < 0.05 vs. post intervention). There were no selective treatment differences for a range of other clinical outcomes including glycaemic regulation (p > 0.05). These findings report that α-lipoic acid ingestion may increase the atherogenicity of LDL when ingested in isolation of exercise, suggesting that in IGT the use of this antioxidant treatment does not ameliorate metabolic disturbances, but instead may detrimentally contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of CVD. However, when α-lipoic acid is combined with exercise, this atherogenic effect is abolished.Lipids in Health and Disease 11/2011; 10:217. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin E and its derivatives, namely, the tocopherols, are known antioxidants, and numerous clinical trials have investigated their role in preventing cardiovascular disease; however, evidence to date remains inconclusive. Much of the in vitro research has focused on tocopherol's effects during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, with little attention being paid to very LDL (VLDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Also, it is now becoming apparent that γ-tocopherol may potentially be more beneficial in relation to cardiovascular health. Do α- and γ-tocopherols become incorporated into VLDL, LDL and HDL and influence their oxidation potential in an in vitro and ex vivo situation? Following (i) an in vitro investigation, where plasma was preincubated with increasing concentrations of either α- or γ-tocopherol and (ii) an in vivo 4-week placebo-controlled intervention with α- or γ-tocopherol. Tocopherol incorporation into VLDL, LDL and HDL was measured via high-pressure liquid chromatography, followed by an assessment of their oxidation potential by monitoring conjugated diene formation. In vitro: Both tocopherols became incorporated into VLDL, LDL and HDL, which protected VLDL and LDL against oxidation. However and surprisingly, the incorporation into HDL demonstrated pro-oxidant properties. Ex vivo: Both tocopherols were incorporated into all three lipoproteins, protecting VLDL and LDL against oxidation; however, they enhanced the oxidation of HDL. These results suggest that α- and γ-tocopherols display conflicting oxidant activities dependent on the lipoprotein being oxidized. Their pro-oxidant activity toward HDL may go some way to explain why supplementation studies with vitamin E have not been able to display cardioprotective effects.The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 06/2011; 23(7):845-51. · 4.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High-fat diets have become increasingly popular for weight-loss, but their effect on the oxidation potential of lipoprotein subfractions has not been studied. Therefore, this study compared the effects of high-fat vs. low-fat weight reduction diets on this parameter. METHODS AND RESULTS: Very-low, low- and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL & HDL) subfractions were isolated by rapid ultracentrifugation from 24-overweight/obese subjects randomised to a high- or low-fat diet. The lipoprotein subfractions were assessed for oxidation potential by measuring conjugated diene (CD) production and time at half maximum. We found a significant between-group difference in oxidation potential. Specifically, a high-fat diet led to increased CD production in VLDL(A-D) and HDL(2&3), and a prolongation of time at half maximum. Within-group differences found that CDs increased in VLDL(A&D), LDL(I-III) and HDL(2&3) in the high-fat group and fell in VLDL(A-C) and HDL(2&3) and increased in LDL(I&II), in the low-fat group. Furthermore, following both diets all lipoprotein subfractions, except LDL(II) in the low-fat group, were protected against oxidation. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that at first glance, a high-fat diet may be indicative of having heart-protective properties. However, this may be erroneous, as although the time for oxidation to occur was prolonged, once this occurred these lipoproteins had the potential to produce significantly more oxidised substrate. Conversely, a low-fat diet may be considered anti-atherogenic, as these subfractions were protected against oxidation and mainly contained fewer oxidised substrate. Thus, increased fat intake may, by increasing the oxidation product within lipoprotein subfractions, increase cardiovascular disease.Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 03/2012; · 3.52 Impact Factor