The association of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) with atherosclerosis remains controversial. However, studies have shown that oxidative modification of VLDL can promote foam cell formation, leading to the development of atherosclerosis. A rapid method is described which will allow the significance of VLDL oxidation to be assessed in clinical studies. VLDL was isolated from heparinized plasma by a 1-h, single spin ultracentrifugation. Total protein was standardized to 25 mg/L. Oxidation was promoted by the addition of copper ions (17.5 mumol/L, final concentration) incubated at 37 degrees C. Conjugated diene production was followed at 234 nm. Total assay preparation time was 2 h. Urate greatly inhibited the oxidation of VLDL and was successfully removed by size exclusion chromatography. VLDL isolated from frozen plasma (-70 degrees C) was stable for 15 weeks. This simple, rapid method for the isolation of VLDL may be applied to assess the significance of VLDL oxidation in disease.
"Serum hydroperoxide concentrations were measured as described in McEneny et al.50 Low density lipoprotein was isolated from plasma and oxidised according to the method of McDowell et al.51 Subsequently, the production of conjugated dienes was followed in triplicate at 234 nm (SpectraMax 190; Molecular Devices Corp., US) using the computer software SoftMax Pro Version 3.0 (Molecular Devices Corp., US); the change in absorbance (from baseline to the maximum absorbance following the propagation phase) was used to quantify conjugated diene concentration, and the time taken to reach half of the maximum oxidation (t1/2max LDL oxidation), which directly correlates with conjugated diene lag time, was taken as a measure of the resistance of the particle to oxidation. The duration of the conjugated diene lag time has been shown to correlate with endogenous antioxidants in LDL.52 Vitamin C concentrations were determined using a fluorimetric assay using a centrifugal analyser with fluorescence attachment according to the method of Vuilleumier and Keck.53 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many degenerative diseases are associated with increased oxidative stress. Creatine has the potential to act as an indirect and direct antioxidant; however, limited data exist to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of creatine supplementation within in-vivo human systems. This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral creatine supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses following exhaustive cycling exercise. Following preliminary testing and two additional familiarization sessions, 18 active males repeated two exhaustive incremental cycling trials (T1 and T2) separated by exactly 7 days. The subjects were assigned, in a double-blind manner, to receive either 20 g of creatine (Cr) or a placebo (P) for the 5 days preceding T2. Breath-by-breath respiratory data and heart rate were continually recorded throughout the exercise protocol and blood samples were obtained at rest (preexercise), at the end of exercise (postexercise), and the day following exercise (post24 h). Serum hypdroperoxide concentrations were elevated at postexercise by 17 +/- 5% above pre-exercise values (P = 0.030). However, supplementation did not influence lipid peroxidation (serum hypdroperoxide concentrations), resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidative stress (t1/2max LDL oxidation) and plasma concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (retinol, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, lycopene, and vitamin C). Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 03/2009; 2(4):247-54. DOI:10.4161/oxim.2.4.9415 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is associated with raised triglycerides and increased very low density lipoprotein cholesterol. The aim of this study was to assess if very low density lipoprotein subfraction composition and potential to oxidise were altered in this condition.
Very low density lipoprotein was separated into four subfractions (A-->D) by a novel, rapid ultracentrifugation procedure. Analysis of each subfraction included lipid and fatty acid composition. Preformed peroxides were measured spectrophotometrically and conjugated dienes were used as an indicator of in vitro lipid oxidation.
In all results we compared patient and control subfractions. Mean fasting plasma glucose was 8.9 +/- 2.0 mmol/l in patients vs 5.1 +/- 0.4 mmol/l in control subjects (p < 0.001); patient HbA1c was 7.6 +/- 1.4%. Patient total lipid standardised for apo B was higher than controls in subfractions A, B and C; A, 201 vs 60; B, 191 vs 40; C, 63 vs 21; D, 29 vs 34 micromol lipid per mg apo B (p < 0.05). Preformed peroxides were higher in all patient subfractions compared with controls: A, 340 vs 48; B, 346 vs 42; C, 262 vs 28; D, 54 vs 16 nmol per mg apo B (p < 0.001). Patient subfractions A and D were more susceptible to in vitro oxidation. Monounsaturated fatty acids were lower in patients subfractions, 35.2 vs 36.7; B, 35.1 vs 38.7; C, 34.4 vs 36.5; D, 33.0 vs 35.5 as per cent total (p < 0.05).
These results indicate abnormalities in very low density lipoprotein subfraction composition and oxidation profile in Type II diabetic subjects, which are characteristic of more atherogenic particles and that may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease in these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The atherogenic oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein is suggested to occur in the aortic intima. There is reasonable evidence to suggest that antioxidants might be beneficial in preventing or retarding the progression of atherosclerosis. Exercise, estrogens, and substitution of polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat are beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Yet, paradoxically, they are capable of inducing an oxidative stress. To reconcile with this paradox, we postulate that under certain conditions an oxidative stress might be beneficial by inducing antioxidant enzymes in arterial cells. However, those with genetic deficiency in antioxidant enzymes or those who poorly respond to oxidative stress or those with overwhelming plasma oxidative stress might need additional antioxidant protection.
Free Radical Research 10/2000; 33(3):197-215. DOI:10.1080/10715760000301381 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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