Increased frequency of CD8 positive gamma/delta T-lymphocytes (CD8+ gamma/delta+) in unmedicated schizophrenic patients: relation to impairment of the blood-brain barrier and HLA-DPA*02011.

Schizophrenia Research (Impact Factor: 4.59). 07/1998; 32(1):69-71. DOI: 10.1016/S0920-9964(98)00036-X
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a brain disorder that has been intensively studied for over a century; yet, its etiology and multifactorial pathophysiology remain a puzzle. However, significant advances have been made in identifying numerous abnormalities in key biochemical systems. One among these is the antioxidant defense system (AODS) and redox signaling. This review summarizes the findings to date in human studies. The evidence can be broadly clustered into three major themes: perturbations in AODS, relationships between AODS alterations and other systems (i.e., membrane structure, immune function, and neurotransmission), and clinical implications. These domains of AODS have been examined in samples from both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Findings in patients with SZ include decreased nonenzymatic antioxidants, increased lipid peroxides and nitric oxides, and homeostatic imbalance of purine catabolism. Reductions of plasma antioxidant capacity are seen in patients with chronic illness as well as early in the course of SZ. Notably, these data indicate that many AODS alterations are independent of treatment effects. Moreover, there is burgeoning evidence indicating a link among oxidative stress, membrane defects, immune dysfunction, and multineurotransmitter pathologies in SZ. Finally, the body of evidence reviewed herein provides a theoretical rationale for the development of novel treatment approaches.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with immune system dysfunction, including abnormal blood immune cell parameters. We performed a meta-analysis of these associations, considering the effect of clinical status and antipsychotic treatment following an acute exacerbation of psychosis. METHODS: We identified articles by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, and Thomson Reuters (formerly ISI) Web of Knowledge and the reference lists of identified studies. RESULTS: Sixteen studies of blood lymphocytes met the inclusion criteria. There was insufficient data for a meta-analysis of the mononuclear phagocytic system. In cross-sectional studies, there was a significant increase in the CD4% and CD56% in acutely relapsed inpatients. Absolute levels of total lymphocytes, CD3, and CD4, and the CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly increased, and the CD3% was significantly decreased in drug-native first-episode psychosis. In longitudinal studies, the CD4/CD8 ratio appeared to be state-related markers, as it decreased following antipsychotic treatment for acute exacerbations of psychosis. Absolute CD56 levels appeared to be a trait marker, as levels significantly increased following antipsychotic treatment for relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Blood lymphocyte abnormalities in drug-naïve first-episode psychosis suggest an effect that may be independent of antipsychotic medications. While some parameters (CD4/CD8) may be state markers for acute exacerbations of psychosis, others (CD56) may be trait markers; however, more longitudinal studies are needed. Although these findings could provide the basis for future hypothesis testing, a relatively small number of studies and subjects, lack of correlative data with clinical features, and inadequate consideration of potential confounding factors limit the results.
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