Mice Defective in Two Apoptosis Pathways in the Myeloid Lineage Develop Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia
ABSTRACT Fas-deficient (Fas(lpr/lpr)) mice constitutively expressing Bcl-2 in myeloid cells by the hMRP8 promoter often develop a fatal disease analogous to human acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML-M2). Hematopoietic cells from leukemic Fas(lpr/lpr)hMRP8bcl-2 animals form clonogenic blast colonies in vitro and can transfer disease to wild-type mice. In vitro ligation of Fas on Fas+/+ hMRP8bcl-2 marrow cells depletes approximately 50% of myeloid progenitor activity, demonstrating that Bcl-2 can only partially block Fas-mediated death signals in myelomonocytic progenitors. In addition, Fas(lpr/lpr) marrow contains greatly increased numbers of myeloid colony-forming cells as compared to Fas+/+ controls. Taken together, these data suggest that Fas has a novel role in the regulation of myelopoiesis and that Fas may act as a tumor suppressor to control leukemogenic transformation in myeloid progenitor cells.
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ABSTRACT: Seminal studies on the proto-oncogene bcl-2 have first demonstrated that mutations that inhibit programmed cell death (apoptosis) can promote lymphomagenesis and influence the sensitivity of tumour cells to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is now widely believed that neoplastic transformation of many, perhaps even all, cell types requires mutational changes that interfere with the cell death programme. In this review, we describe current knowledge of the molecular control of cell death and discuss the role of pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family in tumourigenesis and anti-cancer therapy.Seminars in Cancer Biology 05/2003; 13(2):115-23. DOI:10.1016/S1044-579X(02)00129-3 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The proper expansion and contraction of hematopoietic cells requires tight regulation of cell death. BID, a "BH3-only" molecule, amplifies death receptor signals connecting the extrinsic to intrinsic pathways by triggering the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Bid-deficient mice, as they age, spontaneously develop a myeloproliferative disorder, which progresses from myeloid hyperplasia to a fatal, clonal malignancy closely resembling chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Thus, an apoptotic defect can result in myeloid leukemogenesis. Premalignant Bid-/- myeloid precursor cells are resistant to death receptor-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, a competitive reconstitution assay demonstrates that Bid-deficient long-term repopulating cells give rise to expanded myelomonocytic cells in vivo. Surprisingly, a single BH3-only molecule operating in the extrinsic death receptor pathway proved essential in vivo for physiologic cell death required to maintain myeloid homeostasis. Moreover, progression to CMML indicates that an upstream BH3-only molecule, BID, is required to suppress tumorigenesis.Genes & Development 02/2003; 17(2):229-39. DOI:10.1101/gad.1045603 · 12.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis produced in B cells through Fas (APO-1, CD95) triggering is regulated by signals derived from other surface receptors: CD40 engagement produces upregulation of Fas expression and marked susceptibility to Fas-induced cell death, whereas antigen receptor engagement, or IL-4R engagement, inhibits Fas killing and in so doing induces a state of Fas-resistance, even in otherwise sensitive, CD40-stimulated targets. Surface immunoglobulin and IL-4R utilize at least partially distinct pathways to produce Fas-resistance that differentially depend on PKC and STAT6, respectively. Further, surface immunoglobulin signaling for inducible Fas-resistance bypasses Btk, requires NF-kappaB, and entails new macromolecular synthesis. Terminal effectors of B cell Fas-resistance include the known anti-apoptotic gene products, Bcl-xL and FLIP, and a novel anti-apoptotic gene that encodes FAIM (Fas Apoptosis Inhibitory Molecule). faim was identified by differential display and exists in two alternatively spliced forms; faim-S is broadly expressed, but faim-L expression is tissue-specific. The FAIM sequence is highly evolu- tionarily conserved, suggesting an important role for this molecule throughout phylogeny. Inducible resistance to Fas killing is hypothesized to protect foreign antigen-specific B cells during potentially hazardous interactions with FasL-bearing T cells, whereas autoreactive B cells fail to become Fas-resistant and are deleted via Fas-dependent cytotoxicity. Inadvertent or aberrant acquisition of Fas-resistance may permit autoreactive B cells to escape Fas deletion, and malignant lymphocytes to impede anti-tumor immunity.Cell Research 01/2001; 10(4):245-66. DOI:10.1038/sj.cr.7290053 · 11.98 Impact Factor