Strongyloides stercoralis and other Enteroparasites in Children at Uberlândia City, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Departmento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, MG, Brasil.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Impact Factor: 1.59). 03/1998; 93(2):161-4. DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761998000200004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the rate of infection by Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites a survey was conducted in the city of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 900 stool samples from 300 children aging from four months to seven years, randomly selected in ten nursery schools from September 1994 to December 1995, were examined, both by the Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. Thirty nine children (13%) were found to be infected by S. stercoralis, 64.1% were boys and 35.9% were girls. Taking all the enteroparasites as a whole the results of the survey pointed out that 265 (88.4%0 of the 300 children were infected by the following: Giardia lamblia, 78.3%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 15.3%; S. stercoralis, 13%; Hymenolepis nana, 6.7%; hookworms, 6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 4%; Hymenolepis diminuta, 4% and Trichuris trichiura, 0.7%. From 265 infected children 64.5% were mono-infected, 27.2% were infected by two parasites and 8.3% had a poly-specific parasite burden. It was concluded that strongyloidiasis is hyperendemic in this area.

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Available from: Julia Maria Costa-Cruz, Aug 27, 2014
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    • "Transmission to children in day care centres is facilitated by direct contact with contaminated stool, or from the hands of their caretakers in cases where strict hygienic control is not enforced. High levels of prevalence have been reported in Brazil, mainly among children that attend day care centres [4] [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the phagocytic activity of the polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells present in human colostrum, and to verify the influence of opsonins in the adherence, ingestion and killing of Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes were incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites, in the presence as well as the absence of supernatant of human colostrum (the source of opsonins) for 30, 60 and 120 min. The trophozoites/phagocytes ratio was 1:1, and the percentage of phagocytosed trophozoites was determined by microscopic examination of acridine orange-stained cells. The mononuclear phagocytes presented more functional activity than the polymorphonuclear. The highest indexes of adherence (77.6 +/- 5.1), ingestion (68.9 +/- 5.5) and killing (48.5 +/- 4.9) were obtained through the incubation of mononuclear cells in the presence of colostrum supernatant for 120 min. The phagocytes of human colostrum were able to ingest G.lamblia trophozoites and presented microbicidal activity in vitro, suggesting that these phagocytes may act as an additional mechanism of protection against infant giardiasis through breastfeeding.
    Acta Paediatrica 05/2006; 95(4):438-43. DOI:10.1080/08035250500421592 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    • "Esta doença foi conhecida durante anos como diarréia da Cochinchina (Siddiqui & Berk, 2001). Entre as doenças parasitárias com maior prevalência no Brasil, a estrongiloidíase vem sendo apontada por vários autores como uma das principais, com prevalência variando de 3% a 82% (Gonçalves et al.; 1990; Kobayashi et al.1995; Kobayashi et al.,1996; Machado & Costa-Cruz, 1998; Santos, 2000; Morrone et al., 2004). Strongyloides tem a peculiaridade de ser o único nematóide parasito do homem capaz de realizar um duplo ciclo evolutivo. "
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    ABSTRACT: Strongyloidiasis is caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis and it typically occurs in the asymptomatic form. However, it can cause hyperinfection and dissemination in immunosuppressed patients, especially if they are under corticoid therapy. Definitive diagnosis is made by the detection of larvae in fecal samples. However, as the number of parasites in the host is very low in most cases and the elimination of larvae in the feces is not frequent, the diagnosis of this disease by parasitological methods becomes extremely difficult. The development of reliable immunological assays is an important alternative approach for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis. One of the major limitations in developing more sensitive and specific immunological tests is the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of parasites to have well-defined fractions or molecules. Thus, the development of reliable serological assays for the strongyloidiasis diagnosis that does not need larvae as antigenic component is imperative.
    01/2006; 35(3):173-184. DOI:10.5216/rpt.v35i3.1876
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    • "The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than one billion of the world's population is chronically affected by STH infections, which are closely correlated with poverty, poor environmental hygiene and impoverished health services. Intestinal helmintiases are among the most common communicable disease of school-age children in certain communities and tend to occur at highest intensity in this age group (Albonico et al. 1993; Menan et al. 1997; Urbani et al. 1997; Geissier et al. 1998; Machado & Costa-Cruz 1998; Olsen 1998). High incidence of parasitic infections and polyparasitism affect the health status (Savioli et al. 1992; Albonico et al. 1998; Ferreira et al. 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections represent a major public health problem in poor and developing countries. During the period September-October 1998 we conducted an epidemiological survey of STH infections in schoolchildren of an urban area (group A) and an indigenous reserve (group B), in the Municipality of Ortigueira, State of Paranà, Brazil, to assess potential benefits of mass treatment. Stool samples were examined for helminth eggs by quantitative (Kato-Katz) technique to determine the prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infection. Moreover, we examined the relationship between prevalence and intensity of STH infections and housing/hygienic factors (by means of a 7-item questionnaire). 236 schoolchildren aged 5-15 years were enrolled, 136 in group A and 100 in group B. The prevalence of STH infections was significantly higher in group B (93%) than in group A (22%) (P < 0.001). Detected parasites were: A. lumbricoides (16.1% prevalence in group A, 88% in group B, P < 0.001), hookworms (5.8% in group A, 52% in group B, P < 0.001) and T. trichiura (5.1% in group A, 2% in group B, P = 0.2). Heavy infections were detected in 2.9% and 23% of the children in group A and B, respectively (P < 0.001). Housing/hygienic indicators were significantly poorer in group B. A statistically significant correlation was observed between total prevalence of STH infections and prevalence of high-intensity infections with most housing/hygienic variables. On the basis of these results, mass treatment and educational interventions were suggested for the indigenous community, whereas target treatment and educational interventions were suggested for the urban community. Even in a geographically homogeneous area different epidemiological realities can be found, which in turn can influence infection levels and control programmes.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 05/2000; 5(4):302-7. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2000.00549.x · 2.33 Impact Factor
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