Inflammatory cell distribution within and along asthmatic airways.
ABSTRACT Asthmatic airways are infiltrated with inflammatory cells that release mediators and cytokines into the microenvironment. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of CD45-positive leukocytes and eosinophils in lung tissue from five patients who died with severe asthma compared with five patients with cystic fibrosis. For morphometric analysis, the airway wall was partitioned into an "inner" area (between basement membrane and smooth muscle) and an "outer" area (between smooth muscle and alveolar attachments). Large airways (with a perimeter greater than 3.0 mm) from patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis had a greater density of CD45-positive cells (p < 0.05) and eosinophils (p < 0.001) in the inner airway region compared with the same airway region in small airways. Furthermore, in small airways, asthmatic lungs showed a greater density of CD45-positive cells (p < 0.01) and eosinophils (p < 0.01) in the outer compared with the inner airway wall region. These observations indicate that there are regional variations in inflammatory cell distribution within the airway wall in patients with asthma that are not observed in airways from patients with cystic fibrosis. We speculate that this inflammatory cell density in peripheral airways in severe asthma may relate to the peripheral airway obstruction characteristic of this condition.
SourceAvailable from: Mazdak Ganjalikhani hakemi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: In this study, the expression of IL-9, IL-17, IL-22 and IL-25 genes that might be the potential predisposing factors for asthma as well as counting of ILC cells as another source of inflammatory cytokines which are important players in pathogens of asthma have been evaluated. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of newly identified helper T cells signature cytokines and counting ILC cells as another important source of inflammatory cytokines that were likely to have important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. Material and method: Blood and sputum samples from23 patients with moderate to severe asthma and 23 healthy volunteers were collected. The types of allergens to which our patients were sensitive were defined using immunoblotting method. Gene expression of studied cytokines was evaluated using qRT-PCR and ILCs were counted by flow cytometry method. Result: In this research, the gene expressions of IL-9, IL-17, IL-22 and IL-25 were significantly higher in asthmatics, especially in severe form of the disease. This increase was even more in serum samples comparing with sputum samples. Counting ILCs revealed their increase in comparison with normal people. Conclusion: We showed the importance of IL-25, IL-22, IL-17 and IL-9 cytokines in patients with asthma as their expression level is increased and this increase is correlated with the severity of the disease. We also showed that the increased number of ILCs in asthmatics could confirm their potential role in the immunopathogenesis of asthma as another source of inflammatory cytokines.10/2014; DOI:10.5415/apallergy.2014.4.4.212
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ABSTRACT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor in which prognostic factors are still not well established. Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in ACC and its association with clinico-pathological features and survival outcomes are unknown. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens were obtained from 28 patients with ACC. PD-L1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in both tumor cell membrane and tumor infiltrating mononuclear cells (TIMC). PD-L1 positivity on tumor cells was defined as ≥5% tumor cell membrane staining. TIMC were evaluated by IHC using a CD45 monoclonal antibody. For PD-L1 expression in TIMC, a combined score based on the extent of infiltrates and percentage of positive cells was developed. Any score greater that zero was considered PD-L1 positive. Baseline clinico-pathological characteristics and follow up data were retrospectively collected. Comparisons between PD-L1 expression and clinico-pathological features were evaluated using unpaired t-test and Fisher's exact test. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to assess association between PD-L1 expression and 5-year overall survival (OS). Among 28 patients with surgically treated ACC, 3 (10.7%) were considered PD-L1 positive on tumor cell membrane. On the other hand, PD-L1 expression in TIMC was performed in 27 specimens and PD-L1 positive staining was observed in 19 (70.4%) patients. PD-L1 positivity in either tumor cell membrane or TIMC was not significantly associated with higher stage at diagnosis, higher tumor grade, excessive hormone secretion, or OS. PD-L1 expression can exist in ACC in both tumor cell membrane and TIMC with no relationship to clinico-pathologic parameters or survival.12/2015; 3(1). DOI:10.1186/s40425-015-0047-3
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Inflammation is one of the major components of asthma. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of C. sativus extract on total and differential white blood cells (WBC) count in lung lavage fluid (LLF) of ovalbumin-sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were divided into five groups (n = 8 for each group) as control (C), sensitized with injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (OA) alone (S), and three groups of sensitized and treated with different doses of C. sativus extract (S50EX, S100EX, and S200EX groups). Total and differential WBC counts of LLF were evaluated in control, sensitized, and treated sensitized groups. Results: Total WBC count, neutrophil, and eosinophil percentage in LLF were increased in sensitized animals compared with the control group (p0.001). Treatment of sensitized animals with all doses of the extract significantly reduced WBC number and the percentage of neutrophil and eosinophil compared with the sensitized animals (p0.01–0.001). Conclusion: According to these results, the extract of C. sativus could be effective on alleviating lung inflammatory cells specially eosinophils in lung lavage of sensitized animals which may indicate a preventive effect of this plant on lung inflammation in asthma.Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 03/2013; 3(4):356-63.