The use of bioreactive probes in protein characterization.
ABSTRACT Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) has in the past decade found routine use in the biological sciences. With this use has evolved several mass spectrometric-based methods directed at the intricate investigation of biomolecular structure and function. One such methodology involves the enzymatic modification of a protein prior to the mass spectrometric readout of the resulting products. The enzyme-modification/mass spectrometric approach has a definite use in a number of applications, including: the verification/identification of protein sequence, elucidation of post-translational modifications, the investigation of protein higher-order structure, and even the characterization of the modifying enzyme. To avoid the potentials of sample loss and autolytic interferences in the mass spectrum, mass spectrometer targets can be covalently derivatized with enzymes for use in the characterization procedures. The enzymatically active, or bioreactive, probes are used by application of the analyte to the activated surface, followed by application of a suitable MALDI matrix and mass analysis from the surface of the probe. Limited transfer and handling steps eliminate sample losses, and surface-tethered enzymes (and autolytic fragments) are prohibited from interfering with analytical signals in the mass spectra. In addition, the probes are rapid and easy to use. Reviewed here are issues of concern during the manufacture and use of the bioreactive probes, and application of the probes to investigate protein structure and function.
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ABSTRACT: A chemical procedure for the degradation of peptides and analysis by matrix-assisted-laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used for C-terminal sequence determination. The method allowed us to determine up to eight amino acid residues in the lower picomole range by mass analysis without any repetitions of the degradation nor any extraction or purification of the truncated peptide chains. The C-terminal degradation of all 20 common amino acid residues was proved by applying this method. Extended C-terminal sequence information from enzymatic digests using carboxypeptidase P was obtained by combining the enzymatic with the chemical mass spectrometric approach. Furthermore the amino acids lysine and glutamine, with the same masses, were distinguishable due to the formation of acetyl-lysine in the chemical process.European Journal of Biochemistry 04/1997; 244(3):750-4. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe the application of immunoaffinity extraction and mass spectrometry to the analysis of Ty1 Gag protein in lysates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A magnetic bead-conjugated monoclonal antibody was used to achieve selective extraction, the specificity of which was established by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of an extract of the lysate of cells overexpressing the Ty1 Gag protein. MS analysis of similar extracts of lysates following tryptic hydrolysis confirmed selective extraction of the epitope-containing peptide fragment. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to allow the application of this approach to the analysis of lysates of wild-type cells. Furthermore, the sequence of the epitope-containing peptide was confirmed by electrospray-tandem MS. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report of the application of immunoaffinity extraction and tandem MS analysis to the characterization of an antigen recovered from a complex cellular system.Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 04/1998; 9(3):208-15. · 3.59 Impact Factor
- Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/1997; 64:175-82.