Insights into the dynamic nature of DNA duplex structure via analysis of nuclear Overhauser effect intensities.
ABSTRACT Sequence-dependent structures of DNA duplexes in solution can be reliably determined using NMR data if care is taken to determine restraint bounds accurately. This entails use of complete relaxation matrix methods to analyze nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) spectroscopic cross-peak intensities, yielding accurate distance restraints. NMR studies of various DNA duplexes have suggested that there may be some limited internal motions. First, it is typically not possible to reconcile all vicinal proton coupling constants in deoxyribose rings with a single conformer. In addition, with the increased accuracy of interproton distance measurements afforded by the complete relaxation matrix algorithm MARDIGRAS, we find inconsistencies in certain distances which can most readily be ascribed to limited conformational flexibility, since conformational averaging is nonlinear. As base-sugar interproton distances depend on both sugar pucker and glycosidic torsion angle chi, motion involving these structural variables should be reflected by experimental data. Possible motional models have been considered to account for all of the data for three DNA duplexes. Analysis of intraresidue base-sugar interproton NOE bounds patterns suggests a motional model with individual sugars in equilibrium between S (2'-endo) and N (3'-endo) conformations, with S being preferred. As sugar repuckering is correlated with changes in glycosidic torsion angle chi, different sugar conformers imply different values for chi, but this is insufficient to account for all data. A two-state jump between anti and syn glycosidic conformers was considered, but it was incapable of accounting for all data. However, a model with restricted diffusion (rocking) about the glycosidic bond in addition to sugar repuckering was capable of accommodating all experimental data. This motional model is in qualitative agreement with experimental 13C relaxation-derived order parameter values in a DNA duplex.
- SourceAvailable from: Jonathan W. Neidigh[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The selection of nucleoside triphosphates by a polymerase is controlled by several energetic and structural features, including base pairing geometry as well as sugar structure and conformation. Whereas base pairing has been considered exhaustively, substantially less is known about the role of sugar modifications for both nucleotide incorporation and primer extension. In this study, we synthesized oligonucleotides containing 2'-fluoro-modified nucleosides with constrained sugar pucker in an internucleotide position and, for the first time, at a primer 3'-end. The thermodynamic stability of these duplexes was examined. The nucleoside 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroarabinofuranosyluracil [U(2'F(ara))] favors the 2'-endo conformation (DNA-like), while 2'-deoxy-2'-fluororibofuranosyluracil [U(2'F(ribo))] favors the 3'-endo conformation (RNA-like). Oligonucleotides containing U(2'F(ara)) have slightly higher melting temperatures (T(m)) than those containing U(2'F(ribo)) when located in internucleotide positions or at the 3'-end and when correctly paired with adenine or mispaired with guanine. However, both modifications decrease the magnitude of DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees for duplex formation in all sequence contexts. In examining the thermodynamic properties for this set of oligonucleotides, we find entropy-enthalpy compensation is apparent. Our thermodynamic findings led to a series of experiments with DNA ligase that reveal, contrary to expectation based upon observed T(m) values, that the duplex containing the U(2'F(ribo)) analogue is more easily ligated. The 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxynucleosides examined here are valuable probes of the impact of sugar constraint and are also members of an important class of antitumor and antiviral agents. The data reported here may facilitate an understanding of the biological properties of these agents, as well as the contribution of sugar conformation to replication fidelity.Biochemistry 11/2009; 48(50):11994-2004. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The structure and dynamics of the Dickerson DNA dodecamer [5'd(CGCGAATTCGCG)2] in solution have been investigated by joint simulated annealing refinement against NMR and large-angle X-ray scattering data (extending from 0.25 to 3 A-1). The NMR data comprise an extensive set of hetero- and homonuclear residual dipolar coupling and 31P chemical shift anisotropy restraints in two alignment media, supplemented by NOE and 3J coupling data. The NMR and X-ray scattering data cannot be fully ascribed to a single structure representation, indicating the presence of anisotropic motions that impact the experimental observables in different ways. Refinement with ensemble sizes (Ne) of >or=2 to represent the atomic motions reconciles all the experimental data within measurement error. Cross validation against both the dipolar coupling and X-ray scattering data suggests that the optimal ensemble size required to account for the current data is 4. The resulting ensembles permit one to obtain a detailed view of the conformational space sampled by the dodecamer in solution and permit one to analyze fluctuations in helicoidal parameters, sugar puckers, and BI-BII backbone transitions and to obtain quantitative metrics of atomic motion such as generalized order parameters and thermal B factors. The calculated order parameters are in good agreement with experimental order parameters obtained from 13C relaxation measurements. Although DNA behaves as a relatively rigid rod with a persistence length of approximately 150 bp, dynamic conformational heterogeneity at the base pair level is functionally important since it readily permits optimization of intermolecular protein-DNA interactions.Biochemistry 02/2007; 46(5):1152-66. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Changes in bending of the DNA helix axis caused by the introduction of conformationally locked nucleotide analogs into the center region of the palindromic Dickerson dodecamer, d(CGCGAATTCGCG)(2), have been studied by NMR measurement of residual one-bond (13)C-(1)H dipolar couplings. Thymidine analogs, in which the deoxyribose was substituted by bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane, were incorporated in the T7, T8, and T7T8 positions. These nucleotide analogs restrict the ring pucker to the C2'-exo or "north" conformation, instead of C2'-endo or "south," which dominates in regular B-form DNA. For all three oligomers, bending toward the major groove is found relative to the native molecule. The effects are additive with bending of 5 +/- 1 degrees per locked nucleotide. Measurement of the change in bending is more accurate than measurement of the bending angle itself and requires far fewer experimental data.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2005; 102(1):24-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor