Reports of smoking in a national survey: data from screening and detailed interviews, and from self- and interviewer-administered questions.
ABSTRACT This study compares responses to questions about smoking in a brief screening interview with those from a subsequent, more detailed interview; it also compares responses to self-administered questions and questions administered by interviewers. The data are from the 1994 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA).
About 22000 respondents completed the main questionnaire of the 1994 NHSDA. Earlier, a member of each sample household had been asked to provide screening information, including smoking status, for each person in the household. Then, one or more persons in the household were interviewed about their own smoking and drug use; for some respondents, the questions about smoking were self-administered and for others they were administered by an interviewer. We examined discrepancies between reports about smoking from the screening data and main interview data; we also compared the results across the two versions of the main interview smoking questions (self and interviewer-administered).
The screening data produced lower estimated rates of smoking than did the main interview data, particularly when proxies provided the screening data. In the main interviews, self-administered questions produced higher estimates of the prevalence of smoking than interviewer-administered questions, but only for adolescents.
Proxies can provide some information about smoking, although the data are likely to be biased for younger age groups and for infrequent smokers. For adolescents, self-administration appears to elicit more candid reports about smoking than interviewer administration. In addition, multiple items may help to capture smoking reports by persons who are reluctant to admit they have smoked recently or whose status as smokers is unclear.
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ABSTRACT: Extent and sources of inconsistency in self-reported cigarette smoking between self-administered school surveys and household interviews was examined in two longitudinal multiethnic adolescent samples, the urban Transition to Nicotine Dependence in Adolescence (TND) (N = 832) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) (N = 4,414). Inconsistency was defined as a positive report of smoking in school followed by a negative report in the household. Smoking questions were ascertained with paper-and-pencil instruments (PAPI-SAQ) in school in both studies, and computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) in TND but audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) in Add Health in the household. In TND, 23.5 percent of youths who reported smoking lifetime and 20.4 percent of those who reported smoking the last 12 months in the school survey reported in the household never having smoked; in Add Health, the latter was 8.6 percent. Logistic regressions identified five common correlates of inconsistency across the two studies: younger age, ethnic minority status, lesser involvement in deviant activities, having nonsmoking parents and friends. In TND, interviewing of youth and parent by the same interviewer increased inconsistent reporting. Matching the definition of inconsistent reporting and the age, gender and race/ethnic distributions of TND on an urban Add Health subsample reduced the predicted rate of inconsistency in TND. The estimated bias attributable to CAPI compared with ACASI methodology did not reach significance in the aggregated matched samples suggesting that irrespective of administration mode, household interviews decrease reporting of smoking, especially among younger, minority and more conventional youths embedded in a social network of nonsmokers.Public Opinion Quarterly 02/2008; 72(2):260-290. DOI:10.1093/poq/nfn016 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the project "Local and National Public Health Monitor" national reference data are generated by merging regional data, that are collected by the Community Health Services. The aim of this report is to investigate whether differences in the methods of data collection threaten the comparability of regional data and the merging of regional data into national reference data. The effect of differences in the sampling methods, non-response, seasonal variation, and mode of data collection on outcome measures is investigated by literature review, data analyses, and consulting experts. Differences in the size or fraction of the sample will not influence the comparability of collected data. When a stratified sample is drawn, weights can be assigned to the respondents in order to achieve representativeness of the population. Bias of outcome measures caused by non-response can be largely adjusted for by weighting the data using a model consisting of variables like age, sex, or marital status. These variables are known to be associated with response as well as with the outcome measures. Both seasonal variation and the mode of data collection (mailed questionnaire/interview/internet) appeared to influence health indicators and life style factors. Based on these findings it is concluded that differences in the methods of data collection may result in differences in outcome measures. This can be taken into account when the Community Health Services deliver information on their methods of data collection. Verschillen in methoden van gegevens verzamelen blijken te leiden tot verschillen in uitkomstmaten. Deze bevinding, beschreven in dit rapport, vormt de basis voor een advies voor uniforme gegevensverzameling door GGD'en. In het project "Lokale en Nationale Monitor Volksgezondheid" worden lokaal verzamelde gegevens samengevoegd om landelijke referentiecijfers over gezondheid en leefstijlfactoren te verkrijgen. GGD'en gebruiken echter verschillende methoden van gegevensverzameling en de vraag is in hoeverre de verzamelde gegevens vergelijkbaar zijn en samengevoegd mogen worden. Met behulp van literatuuronderzoek, data-analyses en overleg met deskundigen is onderzocht wat het effect is van verschillen in de steekproeftrekking, non-respons, seizoen waarin gemeten is en de manier van enqueteren op de uitkomsten. Tevens is bestudeerd hoe met deze verschillen omgegaan kan worden. Verschillen in de grootte van de steekproef hebben geen invloed op de vergelijkbaarheid van uitkomsten. Non-respons beinvloedt de uitkomsten alleen als bepaalde groepen van de bevolking vaker meedoen dan andere. In dit geval kan de representativiteit van de respondenten voor de populatie vergroot worden door te wegen naar factoren die samenhangen met zowel respons als de uitkomstmaten, zoals leeftijd, geslacht, burgerlijke staat en urbanisatiegraad. Voor zowel seizoen als manier van enqueteren geldt dat gegevens niet vergelijkbaar zijn wanneer de methode verschilt. In de zomer werd namelijk een betere gezondheid en een gezondere leefstijl gerapporteerd dan in de winter. Verder rapporteerden mensen die een enquete via internet invulden een ongezondere leefstijl dan mensen die dat schriftelijk deden.
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ABSTRACT: Among persons in the United States under age 18 years, every day more than 6000 try cigarette smoking for the first time and more than 3000 become daily smokers. The overwhelming majority of adults who smoke began by age 18 years. Slightly more than one-third of US high school students were cigarette smokers in 1997. In recent years, males were about as likely as females to smoke. American Indians/Alaska Natives and whites were more likely to smoke than were Hispanics, African-Americans, and Asian-Americans/Pacific Islanders. Overall, cigarette smoking prevalence declined in the late 1970s or early 1980s, leveled off in the 1980s, and increased in the 1990s. The decline in prevalence among African-Americans was especially noteworthy. Among US high school students in 1997, the prevalence of cigar smoking was higher than that of smokeless tobacco use. Indicators of nicotine dependence are prevalent among adolescents who use tobacco products. Efforts to: (1) improve the validity of self-reported behaviors; (2) increase access to school dropouts and infrequent school attendees; and (3) improve school participation rates, data availability, and data linkage systems will benefit the field. Qualitative research can suggest variables to be added to survey questionnaires. Methods research should be conducted to better quantify and explain differences between survey estimates. Tracking relevant environmental variables and new tobacco products will expand the science base and facilitate appropriate public health action.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 02/1999; 1 Suppl 1:S31-40. DOI:10.1080/14622299050011571 · 2.81 Impact Factor