IDA-FLAG (idarubicin, fludarabine, cytarabine, G-CSF), an effective remission-induction therapy for poor-prognosis AML of childhood prior to allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation: experiences of a phase II trial.
ABSTRACT A phase II trial was designed to explore the potential feasibility and efficacy of a reinduction therapy consisting of fludarabine, cytarabine, idarubicin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) patients with poor prognosis. Twenty-three patients aged 1 2-17.5 years with refractory (n=3), relapsed (n=19) or secondary (n=11) AML were treated with the IDA-FLAG regimen, a combination therapy of idarubicin (days 2-4, 12 mg/m2/d), fludarabine (days 1-4, 30 mg/m2/d), cytarabine (days 1-4, 2000mg/ m2/d) and G-CSF (day 0 up to ANC > 1 x 10(9)/l, 400 microg/m2/ d). They received a total of 3 7 courses of IDA-FLAG and/or FLAG (IDA-FLAG without idarubicin). 17/23 patients achieved a complete remission (CR) with a median duration of 13.5 months (1-39 months), one patient showed a partial remission, and five were nonresponders while in CR, 11 patients underwent bone marrow or PBSC (peripheral blood stem cells) transplantation. Overall, nine patients remain in continuous complete remission with a median duration of 17.5 months (9.5-39 months). The toxicity of the IDA-FLAG courses was more severe than for the FLAG courses with marked neutropenia and thrombocytopenia (for IDA-FLAG: median 22.5 and 25 d respectively; for FLAG: median 10.5 and 14 d respectively). Pulmonary infections were the main nonhaematological toxicity. One patient died in CR from invasive aspergillosis. The IDA-FLAG regimen produced a CR of >12 months in more than half of the patients and can be recommended as a therapeutic option prior to allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation.
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ABSTRACT: Elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) those refractory to induction chemotherapy and those with so-called secondary leukemia have unfavorable prognoses and require innovative therapeutic approaches. Fludarabine allows an increased accumulation of Ara-CTP in leukemic cells and inhibits DNA repair mechanisms; therefore its association with Ara-C and mitoxantrone results in a synergistic effect. From May 1993 to February 1996, fludarabine-containing regimens (FLAG and FLANG) were employed as induction therapy in 51 high-risk AML patients. Diagnosis of AML in 22 patients was preceded by a myelodysplastic syndrome lasting more than six months; 8 of the 29 de novo AML cases (28%) were refractory to previous chemotherapy, 9 (31%) were treated for early relapse, 12 (41%) presented poor prognostic factors at diagnosis. The median age was 64 (range 33-76) years and the FAB subtypes were the following: M0 3, M1 5, M2 28, M4 7, M5 8. Forty-eight per cent of patients showed poor prognosis chromosomal abnormalities. FLAG (24 patients) consisted of both fludarabine 30 mg/sqm over 30 minutes followed 4 hours later by Ara-C 2 g/sqm over 4 hours (for 5 days) and G-CSF 300 micrograms/day administered 12 hours before fludarabine, for a total of 5 doses. FLANG (27 patients) had a shorter duration (3 days), reduced Ara-C dosage (1 g/sqm) and administration of mitoxantrone (10 mg/sqm) at the end of Ara-C infusion. Recovery of both neutrophils (PMN > 0.5 x 10(9)/L) and platelets (Plt > 20 x 10(9)/L) required a median of 16 days from the end of therapy. Overall, 30 patients (59%) achieved CR, 6 (11%) PR and 10 (20%) were refractory; 5 (10%) experienced early death (cerebral hemorrhage or infection). The length of complete response ranged from 2 to 26 months with a median follow-up of 8 months. De novo and secondary AML registered 62 and 54% CR rates, respectively. Eight out of 10 patients refractory to conventional schemes achieved CR (80%) but only 3 out of 10 treated for relapse obtained CR (30%). FLAG and FLANG showed similar activity and toxicity while proving to be highly effective and relatively well-tolerated treatments for high-risk de novo AML. Secondary leukemias seemed to be responsive as well, but the presence of an unfavorable karyotype alteration lowered the response rate.Haematologica 81(6):513-20. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Between 1976 and 1988 we treated 228 children age 18 years or less with AML on three consecutive protocols: Vapa, 80-035 and Hi-C Daze. All three protocols used intensive consolidation chemotherapy. VAPA and 80-035 used an anthracycline with standard dose cytosine arabinoside (ara-c) for remission induction followed by twelve to fourteen months of intensive sequential chemotherapy. Results were similar for these two treatment protocols. 90/125 (72%) of the patients achieved a complete remission with 45% projected disease free survival for the complete responders, and an event free survival of 31%. 8/26 (VAPA) and 3/21 (80-035) relapses were primary CNS. No factor significantly influenced the rate of complete remission, but M4 and M5 FAB subtypes and WBC greater than 100,000/ul predicted for shorter remission duration. 103 children received Hi-C DAZE. The protocol differed by utilizing high-dose ara-c during induction and consolidation and pairing VP-16 with azacytidine. Hi-C DAZE was modified after the first 33 patients (group 1) because of CNS toxicity; VP-16/azacytidine were substituted for high dose ara-c/daunorubicin as the second induction course for the next 70 patients (group 2). Twenty eight of 33 (85%) of group 1 and 54/70 (77%) of group 2 entered remission.Leukemia 02/1992; 6 Suppl 2:48-51. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To confirm and extend encouraging preliminary results of timed sequential chemotherapy (TSC) in patients with previously treated acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We report the results of the regimen of mitoxantrone on days 1 to 3, etoposide on days 8 to 10, and cytarabine on days 1 to 3 and 8 to 10 (EMA) in 133 patients, with a median follow-up of 40 months. Sixty percent of patients, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) ranging from 51% to 68%, achieved complete remission (CR), including 44% (CI, 32% to 57%) of refractory patients and 76% (CI, 64% to 86%) of late first-relapse patients (P = .0002). Twenty-nine percent of patients did not respond to therapy, and 11% died from toxicity. Median duration of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia was 31 days and 29 days, respectively. Severe nonhematologic toxicity included sepsis in 54% of patients and mucositis in 23%. Postinduction therapy included a second course of EMA in 27 patients, maintenance in 10, autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in 12, and allogeneic BMT in 13. Median survival of patients who did not have transplantation performed is 7 months, with 11% (CI, 4% to 18%) survival at 5 years. Median disease-free survival (DFS) is 8 months with 20% (CI, 8% to 32%) DFS at 5 years. Twenty-eight percent (CI, 15% to 44%) of nontransplanted patients who achieved CR had an inversion of CR duration. Previous refractoriness was the main factor associated with poor prognosis for CR achievement, DFS, and survival. These results confirm initial reports on TSC and show that approximately 20% of patients with first relapse after therapy can enjoy prolonged DFS using chemotherapy only.Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/1995; 13(1):11-8. · 18.04 Impact Factor