Article

Lifetime panic-depression comorbidity in the National Comorbidity Survey

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 10/1998; 55(9):801-8. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.55.9.801
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The National Comorbidity Survey is a nationally representative survey of the prevalences and correlates of DSM-III-R disorders in the US household population.
Retrospective age-at-onset reports were used to study predictive relationships between lifetime panic and depression.
Strong associations were found between the lifetime prevalences of panic and major depressive episodes (odds ratios: for panic attacks with depression, 6.2; for panic disorder with depression, 6.8). These associations were not significantly influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of respondents with mania. Temporally primary depression predicted a first onset of subsequent panic attacks but not of panic disorder. Temporally primary panic attacks, with or without panic disorder and whether or not the panic was persistent, predicted a first onset of subsequent major depression. The associations between panic attack and depression were attenuated in models that controlled for prior traumatic life experiences and histories of other DSM-III-R disorders.
Lifetime panic-depression comorbidity characterizes most community respondents with panic disorder and a substantial few of those with major depression. The absence of a dose-response relationship suggests that primary panic attack is a marker, rather than a causal risk factor, of subsequent depression. Primary depression, in comparison, appears to be a genuine risk factor for secondary panic attacks. That primary depression predicts panic attacks but not panic disorder suggests that secondary panic is a severity marker of depression rather than a comorbid condition. These results are far from definitive because they are based on retrospective reports, lay-administered diagnostic interviews, and only 1 survey. However, they raise important questions that could lead to a fundamental rethinking of panic-depression comorbidity if they are replicated in future epidemiological and clinical studies.

0 Followers
 · 
75 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anxiety and depression are often highly correlated with each other. To explain this connection, the present study examined the longitudinal relationship between earlier anxiety and later depression, using avoidance as a mediator and trauma as a moderator. Participants (N = 6,504 adolescents) completed baseline measures of anxiety and depression, a measure of avoidance one year later, a measure of trauma six to eight years later, and a measure of depression 12 to 14 years later. Analyzed with structural equation models, the results showed that anxiety predicted later depression, and this relationship was partially mediated by avoidance. The relationship between avoidance and depression was not moderated by trauma. Together, these findings suggest that anxiety may influence later depression through avoidance, and this relationship remains unaffected by experiencing a traumatic experience.
    Journal of Anxiety Disorders 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.03.007 · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Presented is a model suggesting that the right hemisphere (RH) directly mediates the identification and comprehension of positive and negative emotional stimuli, whereas the left hemisphere (LH) contributes to higher level processing of emotional information that has been shared via the corpus callosum. RH subcortical connections provide initial processing of emotional stimuli, and their innervation to cortical structures provides a secondary pathway by which the hemispheres process emotional information more fully. It is suggested that the LH contribution to emotion processing is in emotional regulation, social well-being, and adaptation, and transforming the RH emotional experience into propositional and verbal codes. Lastly, it is proposed that the LH has little ability at the level of emotion identification, having a default positive bias and no ability to identify a stimulus as negative. Instead, the LH must rely on the transfer of emotional information from the RH to engage higher-order emotional processing. As such, either hemisphere can identify positive emotions, but they must collaborate for complete processing of negative emotions. Evidence presented draws from behavioral, neurological, and clinical research, including discussions of subcortical and cortical pathways, callosal agenesis, commissurotomy, emotion regulation, mood disorders, interpersonal interaction, language, and handedness. Directions for future research are offered.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 04/2014; 8:230. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00230 · 2.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Panic Disorder (PD) and agoraphobia (AG) are frequently comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but the correlates of these comorbidities in OCD are fairly unknown. The study aims were to: 1) estimate the prevalence of PD with or without AG (PD), AG without panic (AG) and PD and/or AG (PD/AG) in a large clinical sample of OCD patients and 2) compare the characteristics of individuals with and without these comorbid conditions. A cross-sectional study with 1001 patients of the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders using several assessment instruments, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders. Bivariate analyses were followed by logistic regression models. The lifetime prevalence of PD was 15.3% (N=153), of AG 4.9% (N=49), and of PD/AG 20.2% (N=202). After logistic regression, hypochondriasis and specific phobia were common correlates of the three study groups. PD comorbidity was also associated with higher levels of anxiety, having children, major depression, bipolar I, generalized anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorders. Other independent correlates of AG were: dysthymia, bipolar II disorder, social phobia, impulsive-compulsive internet use, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Patients with PD/AG were also more likely to be married and to present high anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, major depression, impulsive-compulsive internet use, generalized anxiety, posttraumatic stress and binge eating disorders. Some distinct correlates were obtained for PD and AG in OCD patients, indicating the need for more specific and tailored treatment strategies for individuals with each of these clinical profiles.
    Comprehensive psychiatry 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.11.017 · 2.26 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from