Mechanisms of protection induced by attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus. II. Lymphocyte depletion does not abrogate protection.
ABSTRACT To determine the role that cellular immune responses play in the protection conferred by vaccination with attenuated SIVmac32H (pC8), we have attempted to deplete macaques of their CD8+ cells prior to challenge with wild-type SIVmac32H (pJ5). In two of four pC8-infected macaques, N109 and N112, a transient partial depletion of CD8+ cells by antibody treatment was achieved. On the day of challenge peripheral CD2+CD4-CD8+ cell counts were reduced by 92 and 95%, respectively, in animals N109 and N112 and their lymph nodes revealed a 46 and 58% reduction, respectively, in CD2+CD4-CD8+ cells. Two other pC8-immunized macaques, N110 and N111, treated in the same way, did not show significant depletion of CD8+ cells. None of these four pC8-immunized animals became infected when challenged with 50 MID50 of pJ5. Treatment of a further four pC8-infected and protected macaques and two naive control animals with Campath-1H antibody successfully depleted peripheral CD3+ cell counts by >99% in all treated animals. Campath-1H depletion resulted in enhanced, longer lasting lymphoid depletion. Yet subsequent challenge with 20 MID50 of pJ5 still failed to infect the pC8-immunized animals. All eight of the naive controls, including two Campath-1H-treated animals, became infected following challenge. In summary, partial depletion of circulating CD8+ cells or total lymphocytes prior to challenge failed to abrogate the protection conferred by vaccination with pC8.
Article: A combination DNA and attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine strategy provides enhanced protection from simian/human immunodeficiency virus-induced disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Among the most effective vaccine candidates tested in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque system, live attenuated viruses have been shown to provide the best protection from challenge. To investigate if preimmunization would increase the level of protection afforded by live attenuated SIVmac239Deltanef (Deltanef), macaques were given two priming immunizations of DNA encoding SIV Gag and Pol proteins, with control macaques receiving vector DNA immunizations. In macaques receiving the SIV DNA inoculation, SIV-specific cellular but not humoral responses were readily detectable 2 weeks after the second DNA inoculation. Following boosting with live attenuated virus, control of Deltanef replication was superior in SIV-DNA-primed macaques versus vector-DNA-primed macaques and was correlated with higher levels of CD8+/gamma-interferon-positive and/or interleukin-2-positive cells. Challenge with an intravenous inoculation of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strain SHIV89.6p resulted in infection of all animals. However, macaques receiving SIV DNA as the priming immunizations had statistically lower viral loads than control animals and did not develop signs of disease, whereas three of seven macaques receiving vector DNA showed severe CD4+ T-cell decline, with development of AIDS in one of these animals. No correlation of immune responses to protection from disease could be derived from our analyses. These results demonstrate that addition of a DNA prime to a live attenuated virus provided better protection from disease following challenge than live attenuated virus alone.Journal of Virology 01/2006; 79(24):15356-67. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: Vaccination with live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus causes dynamic changes in intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vaccination with live attenuated SIV can protect against detectable infection with wild-type virus. We have investigated whether target cell depletion contributes to the protection observed. Following vaccination with live attenuated SIV the frequency of intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells, an early target of wild-type SIV infection and destruction, was determined at days 3, 7, 10, 21 and 125 post inoculation. In naive controls, modest frequencies of intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells were predominantly found within the LPL TTrM-1 and IEL TTrM-2 subsets. At day 3, LPL and IEL CD4+CCR5+ TEM cells were dramatically increased whilst less differentiated subsets were greatly reduced, consistent with activation-induced maturation. CCR5 expression remained high at day 7, although there was a shift in subset balance from CD4+CCR5+ TEM to less differentiated TTrM-2 cells. This increase in intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells preceded the peak of SIV RNA plasma loads measured at day 10. Greater than 65.9% depletion of intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells followed at day 10, but overall CD4+ T cell homeostasis was maintained by increased CD4+CCR5- T cells. At days 21 and 125, high numbers of intestinal CD4+CCR5- naive TN cells were detected concurrent with greatly increased CD4+CCR5+ LPL TTrM-2 and IEL TEM cells at day 125, yet SIV RNA plasma loads remained low. This increase in intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells, following vaccination with live attenuated SIV, does not correlate with target cell depletion as a mechanism of protection. Instead, increased intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells may correlate with or contribute to the protection conferred by vaccination with live attenuated SIV.Retrovirology 01/2011; 8(1):8. · 6.47 Impact Factor
Article: Early potent protection against heterologous SIVsmE660 challenge following live attenuated SIV vaccination in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines represent the most effective means of vaccinating macaques against pathogenic SIV challenge. However, thus far, protection has been demonstrated to be more effective against homologous than heterologous strains. Immune correlates of vaccine-induced protection have also been difficult to identify, particularly those measurable in the peripheral circulation. Here we describe potent protection in 6 out of 8 Mauritian-derived cynomolgus macaques (MCM) against heterologous virus challenge with the pathogenic, uncloned SIVsmE660 viral stock following vaccination with live attenuated SIVmac251/C8. MCM provided a characterised host genetic background with limited Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and TRIM5α allelic diversity. Early protection, observed as soon as 3 weeks post-vaccination, was comparable to that of 20 weeks vaccination. Recrudescence of vaccine virus was most pronounced in breakthrough cases where simultaneous identification of vaccine and challenge viruses by virus-specific PCR was indicative of active co-infection. Persistence of the vaccine virus in a range of lymphoid tissues was typified by a consistent level of SIV RNA positive cells in protected vaccinates. However, no association between MHC class I/II haplotype or TRIM5α polymorphism and study outcome was identified. This SIV vaccine study, conducted in MHC-characterised MCM, demonstrated potent protection against the pathogenic, heterologous SIVsmE660 challenge stock after only 3 weeks vaccination. This level of protection against this viral stock by intravenous challenge has not been hitherto observed. The mechanism(s) of protection by vaccination with live attenuated SIV must account for the heterologous and early protection data described in this study, including those which relate to the innate immune system.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23092. · 4.09 Impact Factor