The role of laminins in basement membrane function. J Anat

Institut für Biochemie II, Medical Faculty, Cologne, Germany.
Journal of Anatomy (Impact Factor: 2.1). 08/1998; 193 ( Pt 1)(01):1-21. DOI: 10.1046/j.1469-7580.1998.19310001.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Laminins are a family of multifunctional macromolecules, ubiquitous in basement membranes, and represent the most abundant structural noncollagenous glycoproteins of these highly specialised extracellular matrices. Their discovery started with the difficult task of isolating molecules produced by cultivated cells or extracted from tissues. The development of molecular biology techniques has facilitated and accelerated the identification and the characterisation of new laminin variants making it feasible to identify full-length polypeptides which have not been purified. Further, genetically engineered laminin fragments can be generated for studies of their structure-function relationship, permitting the demonstration that laminins are involved in multiple interactions with themselves, with other components of the basal lamina, and with cells. It endows laminins with a central role in the formation, the architecture, and the stability of basement membranes. In addition, laminins may both separate and connect different tissues, i.e. the parenchymal and the interstitial connective tissues. Laminins also provide adjacent cells with a mechanical scaffold and biological information either directly by interacting with cell surface components, or indirectly by trapping growth factors. In doing so they trigger and control cellular functions. Recently, the structural and biological diversity of the laminins has started to be elucidated by gene targeting and by the identification of laminin defects in acquired or inherited human diseases. The consequent phenotypes highlight the pivotal role of laminins in determining heterogeneity in basement membrane functions.

Download full-text


Available from: Monique Aumailley, Sep 28, 2015
25 Reads
  • Source
    • "Laminins are composed of one alpha (α), one beta (β) and one gamma (γ) chain that are twisted together to form either a cruciform or a T-shaped structure. Currently, at least 15 different combinations (αβγ) of laminins are known [9-11]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Correct interactions with extracellular matrix are essential to human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) to maintain their pluripotent self-renewal capacity during in vitro culture. hPSCs secrete laminin 511/521, one of the most important functional basement membrane components, and they can be maintained on human laminin 511 and 521 in defined culture conditions. However, large-scale production of purified or recombinant laminin 511 and 521 is difficult and expensive. Here we have tested whether a commonly available human choriocarcinoma cell line, JAR, which produces high quantities of laminins, supports the growth of undifferentiated hPSCs. We were able to maintain several human pluripotent stem cell lines on decellularized matrix produced by JAR cells using a defined culture medium. The JAR matrix also supported targeted differentiation of the cells into neuronal and hepatic directions. Importantly, we were able to derive new human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines on JAR matrix and show that adhesion of the early hiPSC colonies to JAR matrix is more efficient than to matrigel. In summary, JAR matrix provides a cost-effective and easy-to-prepare alternative for human pluripotent stem cell culture and differentiation. In addition, this matrix is ideal for the efficient generation of new hiPSC lines.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e76205. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0076205 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are known to contribute to the neural differentiation of stem cells and complement the regeneration of the peripheral nervous system [3]. Combinations of synthetic or natural biomaterials with neuralinteracting laminin proteins have been shown to influence cellular attachment, migration, proliferation and differentiation and is promising as an extracellular matrix platform for regeneration [4]. Materials functionalized with laminin or laminin-derived peptides have been shown to increase neurite extension [5e7]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: End-functional PLLA nanofibers were fabricated into mats of random or aligned fibers and functionalized post-spinning using metal-free "click chemistry" with the peptide Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg (YIGSR). Fibers that were both aligned and functionalized with YIGSR were found to significantly increase the fraction of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) expressing neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin (TUJ1), the level of neurite extension and gene expression for neural markers compared to mESC cultured on random fiber mats and unfunctionalized matrices. Precise functionalization of degradable polymers with bioactive peptides created translationally-relevant materials that capitalize on the advantages of both synthetic and natural systems, while mitigating the classic limitations of each.
    Biomaterials 09/2013; 34(36). DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.08.028 · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Fibronectins connect cells with collagens and other ECM components via cell-surface integrin receptors (reviewed in Teti, 1992). Laminins are glycoproteins that modulate adhesion and signaling through integrin binding; additionally, they adhere to other ECM molecules, including other laminins, to form a network that strengthens the membrane by resisting tensile force (reviewed in Aumailley and Smyth, 1998). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The deadly feature of cancer, metastasis, requires invasion of cells through basement membranes (BM), which normally act as barriers between tissue compartments. In the case of many epithelially-derived cancers (carcinomas), laminin-332 (Ln-332) is a key component of the BM barrier. This review provides a historical examination of Ln-332 from its discovery through identification of its functions in BM and possible role in carcinomas. Current understanding points to distinct roles for the three Ln-332 subunits (alpha3, beta3, gamma2) in cell adhesion, extracellular matrix stability, and cell signaling processes in cancer. Given the large number of studies linking Ln-332 gamma2 subunit with cancer prognosis, particular attention is given to the crucial role of this subunit in cancer invasion and to the unanswered questions in this area.
    Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 09/2009; 28(8):445-55. DOI:10.1016/j.matbio.2009.07.008 · 5.07 Impact Factor
Show more