Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene meeting at Manson House, London, 20 March 1997. Epidemiology and control of rabies. The growing problem of rabies in Africa.
ABSTRACT Although rabies in Africa is relatively insignificant in terms of human mortality, the disease is still relevant because of the high costs of rabies prevention. Over the past 2 decades, demographic, economic and sociopolitical trends in Africa have increasingly favoured the persistence and spread of rabies, while limiting the effectiveness of control measures. Dog rabies predominates throughout most of Africa; the domestic dog is the principal reservoir host as well as the most important source of infection for people. However, wild-life rabies is increasingly a concern, both as a threat to endangered wildlife populations and because of the possible emergence of new maintenance hosts.
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ABSTRACT: Rabies is a fatal neurological disease and a persistent global problem. It is spread primarily by domestic dogs but other canid, viverrid (skunks and raccoons) and chiropteran species are considered as the most efficient vectors of the disease. Since dogs are the main perpetuator of rabies, special attention has to be given to bring all the dogs including unauthorized stray dogs under immunization umbrella in order to control rabies. Vaccination is the only way to combat the disease before and after exposure or infection as there is no treatment available once the symptoms have appeared. After the first crude nerve tissue vaccine developed by Pasteur in 1885, a number of rabies vaccines for animal and human use have been developed with varying degree of safety and efficacy over the years. Presently, cell culture based inactivated rabies vaccines are largely used in most of the parts of the world. However, these vaccines are too expensive and unaffordable for vaccination of people and animals in developing countries. The comparatively cheaper inactivated nerve tissues vaccines can cause serious side-effects such as autoimmune encephalomyelitis in inoculated animals and production has been discontinued in several countries. Although attenuated live vaccines can efficiently elicit a protective immune response with a smaller amount of virus, they sometimes can cause rabies in the inoculated animals by its residual virulence or pathogenic mutation during viral propagation in the body. New-generation rabies vaccines generated by gene manipulation although in experimental stage may be a suitable alternative to overcome the disadvantages of the live attenuated vaccines. So, awareness must be created in general public about the disease and the cell culture based vaccines available in the market should be recommended for wide scale use to prevent and control this emerging and reemerging infectious disease in foreseeable future.Avicenna journal of medical biotechnology. 03/2010; 2(1):3-21.This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: 1. Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. 2. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. 3. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. 4. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. 5. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. 6. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species.Journal of Animal Ecology 01/2013; 82(1):6-14. · 4.73 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: We describe five children who died of clinical rabies in a three month period (September to November 2011) in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital. From previous experience and hospital records, this number of cases is higher than expected. We are concerned that difficulty in accessing post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) rabies vaccine may be partly responsible for this rise. We advocate: (a) prompt course of active immunisation for all patients with significant exposure to proven or suspected rabid animals. (b) the use of an intradermal immunisation regime that requires a smaller quantity of the vaccine than the intramuscular regime and gives a better antibody response. (c) improved dog rabies control measures.Malawi medical journal: the journal of Medical Association of Malawi 09/2012; 24(3):61-4. · 0.19 Impact Factor