Mutational analysis of PHEX gene in X-linked hypophosphatemia.
ABSTRACT Hypophosphatemic rickets is commonly an X-linked dominant disorder (XLH or HYP) associated with a renal tubular defect in phosphate transport and bone deformities. The XLH gene, referred to as PHEX, or formerly as PEX (phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome), encodes a 749-amino acid protein that putatively consists of an intracellular, transmembrane, and extracellular domain. PHEX mutations have been observed in XLH patients, and we have undertaken studies to characterize such mutations in 46 unrelated XLH kindreds and 22 unrelated patients with nonfamilial XLH by single stranded conformational polymorphism and DNA sequence analysis. We identified 31 mutations (7 nonsense, 6 deletions, 2 deletional insertions, 1 duplication, 2 insertions, 4 splice site, 8 missense, and 1 within the 5' untranslated region), of which 30 were scattered throughout the putative extracellular domain, together with 6 polymorphisms that had heterozygosity frequencies ranging from less than 1% to 43%. Single stranded conformational polymorphism was found to detect more than 60% of these mutations. Over 20% of the mutations were observed in nonfamilial XLH patients, who represented de novo occurrences of PHEX mutations. The unique point mutation (a-->g) of the 5'untranslated region together with the other mutations indicates that the dominant XLH phenotype is unlikely to be explained by haplo-insufficiency or a dominant negative effect.
SourceAvailable from: Chong Kun Cheon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most common form of familial hypophosphatemic rickets and it is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the PHEX gene. Recently, a wide variety of PHEX gene defects in XLH have been revealed; these include missense mutations, nonsense mutations, splice site mutations, insertions, and deletions. Recently, we encountered a 2-year-9-month-old female with sporadic hypophosphatemic rickets. She underwent osteotomy, dental abscess was evident, and there was severe bowing of the legs. A low serum phosphorus level in combination with elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity and normal serum calcium is suggestive of hypophosphatemic rickets. PHEX gene analysis revealed a splice acceptor site mutation, c.934-1G>T (IVS8(-1)G>T), at the intron8 and exon9 junction. To the best of our knowledge, this mutation is novel and has not been reported. The results of this study expand and improve our understanding of the clinical and molecular characteristics and the global pool of patients with sporadic hypophosphatemic rickets.03/2014; 19(1):36-41. DOI:10.6065/apem.2014.19.1.36
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The musculoskeletal system is a complex organ comprised of the skeletal bones, skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, joints, and other connective tissue that physically and mechanically interact to provide animals and humans with the essential ability of locomotion. This mechanical interaction is undoubtedly essential for much of the diverse shape and forms observed in vertebrates and even in invertebrates with rudimentary musculoskeletal systems such as fish. It makes sense from a historical point of view that the mechanical theories of musculoskeletal development have had tremendous influence of our understanding of biology, because these relationships are clear and palpable. Less visible to the naked eye or even to the microscope is the biochemical interaction among the individual players of the musculoskeletal system. It was only in recent years that we have begun to appreciate that beyond this mechanical coupling of muscle and bones, these 2 tissues function at a higher level through crosstalk signaling mechanisms that are important for the function of the concomitant tissue. Our brief review attempts to present some of the key concepts of these new concepts and is outline to present muscles and bones as secretory/endocrine organs, the evidence for mutual genetic and tissue interactions, pathophysiological examples of crosstalk, and the exciting new directions for this promising field of research aimed at understanding the biochemical/molecular coupling of these 2 intimately associated tissues.Current Osteoporosis Reports 03/2014; 12(2). DOI:10.1007/s11914-014-0209-0
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is caused by mutations in PHEX. Several other genetic forms of hypophosphatemia have also been described. These disorders share variable clinical presentation ranging from mild hypophosphatemia to severe lower extremity bowing. We report on a 43-year-old woman with short stature, painful leg deformities, and poor dentation. Her biochemical profile showed hypophosphatemia with renal phosphate wasting. Due to unusually severe clinical presentation and absence of mutations in Sanger sequencing of the PHEX gene, quantitative multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed. A large deletion within the PHEX gene encompassing exons 8 to 11 was identified. We generated a specific junction fragment using long-range PCR and sequenced the junction fragment to determine the exact deletion breakpoints. We found a heterozygous novel complex re-arrangement involving gross deletions, insertions, and inversion of PHEX (hg19:g.22,115,003_22,141,395del;g:22,145,536_22,150,789delinsCins22,114,640_22,114,698invinsA). Thus, the complex re-arrangement including a deletion of coding exons 8 to 11 of the PHEX can be regarded as the cause of XLH in the patient reported here. Phosphate and active vitamin D treatment was initiated with subsequent relief in bone pain and physical improvement. This report expands the spectrum of clinical severity underlying genetic defects in XLH and highlights the importance of conventional medical therapy even at adult age. Furthermore, our findings underscore the importance of search for gene deletions in patients with suspected XLH. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2014; 164A(11). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36721 · 2.05 Impact Factor