Mutational analysis of PHEX gene in X-linked hypophosphatemia.

Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.31). 10/1998; 83(10):3615-23. DOI: 10.1210/jcem.83.10.5180
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hypophosphatemic rickets is commonly an X-linked dominant disorder (XLH or HYP) associated with a renal tubular defect in phosphate transport and bone deformities. The XLH gene, referred to as PHEX, or formerly as PEX (phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome), encodes a 749-amino acid protein that putatively consists of an intracellular, transmembrane, and extracellular domain. PHEX mutations have been observed in XLH patients, and we have undertaken studies to characterize such mutations in 46 unrelated XLH kindreds and 22 unrelated patients with nonfamilial XLH by single stranded conformational polymorphism and DNA sequence analysis. We identified 31 mutations (7 nonsense, 6 deletions, 2 deletional insertions, 1 duplication, 2 insertions, 4 splice site, 8 missense, and 1 within the 5' untranslated region), of which 30 were scattered throughout the putative extracellular domain, together with 6 polymorphisms that had heterozygosity frequencies ranging from less than 1% to 43%. Single stranded conformational polymorphism was found to detect more than 60% of these mutations. Over 20% of the mutations were observed in nonfamilial XLH patients, who represented de novo occurrences of PHEX mutations. The unique point mutation (a-->g) of the 5'untranslated region together with the other mutations indicates that the dominant XLH phenotype is unlikely to be explained by haplo-insufficiency or a dominant negative effect.

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    ABSTRACT: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is caused by mutations in PHEX. Several other genetic forms of hypophosphatemia have also been described. These disorders share variable clinical presentation ranging from mild hypophosphatemia to severe lower extremity bowing. We report on a 43-year-old woman with short stature, painful leg deformities, and poor dentation. Her biochemical profile showed hypophosphatemia with renal phosphate wasting. Due to unusually severe clinical presentation and absence of mutations in Sanger sequencing of the PHEX gene, quantitative multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed. A large deletion within the PHEX gene encompassing exons 8 to 11 was identified. We generated a specific junction fragment using long-range PCR and sequenced the junction fragment to determine the exact deletion breakpoints. We found a heterozygous novel complex re-arrangement involving gross deletions, insertions, and inversion of PHEX (hg19:g.22,115,003_22,141,395del;g:22,145,536_22,150,789delinsCins22,114,640_22,114,698invinsA). Thus, the complex re-arrangement including a deletion of coding exons 8 to 11 of the PHEX can be regarded as the cause of XLH in the patient reported here. Phosphate and active vitamin D treatment was initiated with subsequent relief in bone pain and physical improvement. This report expands the spectrum of clinical severity underlying genetic defects in XLH and highlights the importance of conventional medical therapy even at adult age. Furthermore, our findings underscore the importance of search for gene deletions in patients with suspected XLH. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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