Progesterone concentrations during estrous cycle of dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields
ABSTRACT Sixteen multiparous nonpregnant lactating Holstein cows (each weighing 662 +/- 65 kg in 150.4 +/- 40 day of lactation) were confined to wooden metabolic cages with 12:12 h light:dark cycle during the experiment. The cows were divided into two sequences of eight cows each and exposed to electric and magnetic fields (EMF) in an exposure chamber. This chamber produced a vertical electric field of 10 kV/m and a uniform horizontal magnetic field of 30 microT at 60 Hz. One sequence was exposed for three estrous cycles of 24 to 27 days. During the first estrous cycle, the electric and magnetic fields were off; during the second estrous cycle, they were on; and during the third estrous cycle, they were off. The second sequence was also exposed for three 24 to 26 days estrous cycles, but the exposure to the fields was reversed (first estrous cycle, on; second estrous cycle, off; third estrous cycle, on). The length of each exposure period (21 to 27 days) varied according to the estrous cycle length. No differences were detected in plasma progesterone concentrations and area under the progesterone curve during estrous cycles between EMF nonexposed and exposed periods (2.28 +/- 0.17 and 2.25 +/- 0.17; and 24.5 +/- 1.9 vs. 26.4 +/- 1.9 ng/ml, respectively). However, estrous cycle length, determined by the presence of a functional corpus luteum detected by concentrations of progesterone equal to or more than 1 ng/ml plasma, was shorter in nonexposed cows than when they were exposed to EMF (22.0 +/- 0.9 vs. 25.3 +/- 1.4 days).
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ABSTRACT: Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can affect a wide range of biological processes, including reproduction, growth and development. Experiments aimed at investigating the biological effects of EMFs, focused on potential harmful effects on humans, have been mostly carried out in vitro or with animal models in laboratory conditions. By contrast, studies performed on wild animals are scarce. The effects of EMFs created by an electric power line on reproductive traits of a wild great tit (Parus major) population were explored by analysing data gathered during nine breeding seasons. EMF exposure significantly increased clutch size (7%) and egg volume (3%), implying a 10% increase in clutch volume. This indicates an increase in reproductive investment from parent birds exposed to EMFs as compared to the adjacent reference area. These results cannot be attributed to habitat or adult quality differences between the exposed and reference group. Nevertheless, no differences in hatching success or final productivity (fledging and reproductive success or nestling body mass) could be detected. Our study clearly shows that EMFs created by power lines can have biological consequences in wild organisms that live intimately with them. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing an increase in clutch size, and one of the few reporting an increase in egg size, associated with EMF exposure. The possible mechanisms by which great tits invest more under EMF exposure are discussed, and future research directions to evaluate the effect of EMFs on avian reproduction in the wild are suggested.Environmental Research 08/2012; 118:40-6. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2012.07.007 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective of our study was to use morphophysiological criteria in order to determine the sensitivity of male rat thyroid gland to an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) influence and the ability of the gland to repair after period of exposure. Animals were exposed to 50Hz, 50-500 microT ELF-EMF for 3 months when a part of them (group I) were sacrificed, while the rest of animals were subjected to recovery evaluation of the gland and sacrificed after 1 (group II), 2 (group III) and 3 (group IV) weeks. Histological and stereological analyses were performed on paraffin and semifine thyroid gland sections. Serum T3 and T4 were also determined. Histological and stereological analyses showed that the volume density of follicular epithelium and thyroid activation index decreased, while the volume density of colloid and capillary network increased in group I, II and III. The values of all these parameters in group IV were similar to corresponding controls. Serum T3 and T4 concentrations were significantly lower in all exposed animals, except in group I. Results of this study demonstrate that after significant morphophysiological changes caused by ELF-EMF exposure thyroid gland recovered morphologically, but not physiologically, during the investigated repair period.Tissue and Cell 07/2003; 35(3):223-31. DOI:10.1016/S0040-8166(03)00029-6 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields (EMF) on the estrous cycle of dairy cows under short-day photoperiod, 16 non-lactating, non-pregnant Holstein cows were exposed to a vertical electric field of 10 kV/m and a horizontal magnetic field of 30 microT for 16 h per day in a cross-over design consisting of two sequences. Each sequence included three periods, and each period corresponded to the duration of one estrous cycle. All animals were maintained under short photoperiod (8 h light/16 h dark) during the trial. Exposure to EMF had an impact on the duration of a complete estrous cycle (P<0.01) and on the duration of the luteal phase (P<0.01). The mean duration of one cycle was 19.5+/-0.4 for the control and 21.3+/-0.4 days for the exposed animals, respectively. The mean duration of the luteal phase was 15.4+/-0.4 days for the control and 17.2+/-0.4 days for the exposed group. The total area under the progesterone (P(4)) curve, the amplitude of the curve or the slope of the P(4) rise at the onset of the luteal phase were not affected by EMF exposure. Results indicate that exposure to EMF may increase the duration of the estrous cycle.Animal Reproduction Science 05/2003; 77(1-2):11-20. DOI:10.1016/S0378-4320(02)00273-7 · 1.58 Impact Factor