Nitric oxide (NO) is believed to have a role in the inflammatory process. NO production was measured in 26 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 20 healthy volunteers, using spectrophotometrically determined serum nitrite and citrulline as surrogate markers. Both nitrite and citrulline levels were significantly higher in patients with SLE than in controls (P < 0.001). Twelve and 10 patients, respectively, with SLE had nitrite and citrulline levels that were two standard deviations higher than the mean level of controls. These patients had a significantly higher measure of disease activity (SLE Disease Activity Index). These data show that there is increased NO production in SLE and that it may serve as a marker for disease activity.
"For instance, reduced NO is associated with hypertension in preeclampsia  and Prinzmetal's angina . Elevated levels of NO have also been associated with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis , systemic lupus erythematosus  and multiple sclerosis . High levels of NO are also related to the processes in transplant rejection  and in septic shock . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While best known for its important signalling functions in human physiology, nitric oxide is also of considerable therapeutic interest. As such, nanoparticle-based systems which enable the sustained exogenous delivery of nitric oxide have been the subject of considerable investigation in recent years. Herein we review the various nanoparticle systems that have been used to date for nitric oxide delivery, and explore the array of potential therapeutic applications that have been reported. Specifically, we discuss the modification of sol-gel based silica particles, functionalised metal/metal oxide nanoparticles, polymer-coated metal nanoparticles, dendrimers, micelles and star polymers to impart nitric oxide release capability. We also consider the various areas in which therapeutic applications are envisaged: wound healing, antimicrobial applications, cardiovascular treatments, sexual medicine and cancer treatment. Finally, we discuss possible future directions for this versatile and potentially important technology
"inhibit antioxidant enzyme function), but others merely reflect the degree of oxidative stress in the local environment. These metabolites include lipid peroxidation end products (malondialdehyde, F2-isoprostane, HNE, acrolein and Ox-LDL), oxidized proteins (protein carbonyl and protein nitrotyrosine), DNA oxidation (8-OHdG), nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and total antioxidant capacity [17,44,45]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease whose etiology remains largely unknown. The uncontrolled oxidative stress in SLE contributes to functional oxidative modifications of cellular protein, lipid and DNA and consequences of oxidative modification play a crucial role in immunomodulation and trigger autoimmunity. Measurements of oxidative modified protein, lipid and DNA in biological samples from SLE patients may assist in the elucidation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the oxidative stress-related damage, the prediction of disease prognosis and the selection of adequate treatment in the early stage of disease. Application of these biomarkers in disease may indicate the early effectiveness of the therapy. This review is intended to provide an overview of various reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during the state of disease and their biomarkers linking with disease. The first part of the review presents biochemistry and pathophysiology of ROS and antioxidant system in disease. The second part of the review discusses the recent development of oxidative stress biomarkers that relates pathogenesis in SLE patients and animal model. Finally, this review also describes the reported clinical trials of antioxidant in the disease that have evaluated the efficacy of antioxidant in the management of disease with ongoing conventional therapy.
"Several studies have established that the proinflammatory action of IL-17 depends considerably on its ability to induce inducible NOS (iNOS) and stimulates significant NO production in various cell types, including chondrocytes, astrocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells6. The possible role of NO in the pathogenesis of different systemic autoimmune disorders has also been indicated, since elevated NO levels have been shown in pSS, SLE and RA patients82829. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interleukin (IL)-17 producing T-helper cells have been linked to pathogenesis of autoimmunity and mostly investigated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study we tested the IL-17 levels, as well as the levels of nitric oxide (NO) as possible IL-17-induced product, in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), an intricate and complex chronic autoimmune disorder of exocrine glands.
Serum IL-17 levels and nitrite concentrations determined in patients with pSS (n=30) were compared with the values obtained in patients with RA (n=10) and healthy controls (n=15). The values obtained for IL-17 in pSS patients were also associated with the patients' clinical characteristics, particularly the rheumatoid factor (RF) and total antinuclear antibodies (tANA) levels.
Serum concentrations of IL-17 were significantly (P<0.01) higher in patients with pSS (12.9 ± 28.0 pg/ml) as compared to those obtained in healthy individuals (0.2 ± 0.6 pg/ml), but not as high as the values obtained for the patients with RA (34.5 ± 56.2 pg/ml). The mean IL-17 levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the pSS patients positive for rheumatoid factor (20.3 ± 33.3 pg/ml) than in RF-negatives (0.3 ± 0.6 pg/ml). Mean serum concentrations of IL-17 were also higher in antinuclear antibody (ANA)-positive samples (19.8 ± 33.5 pg/ml) in comparison to ANA-negative sera (1.1 ± 3.1 pg/ml) (P<0.05). The NO levels also showed elevated values in both pSS and RA patients, as compared to the healthy controls, since mean nitrite levels in patients with pSS and RA were 38.2 ± 29.2 μM and 41.7 ± 21.1 μM, respectively, while those in healthy controls were significantly lower, at 19.2 ± 10.5 μM.
The findings of this study showed that there was increased IL-17 and NO production in patients with primary SS, especially if they had associated elevated rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody values.
The Indian Journal of Medical Research 04/2012; 135(4):513-9. · 1.40 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.