Depressed type early colorectal cancers are found less frequently than other polypoid cancers although they have a higher submucosal invasion rate. Recently videocolonoscopy and chromoendoscopy have become available and precise descriptions of these lesions are now routine. Because endoscopic mucosal resection is designated for intramucosal and focally extended submucosal (m-sm1) cancers, an evaluation of the characteristic findings indicating invasion depth with these modalities is important.
Between January 1991 and March 1996, 64 depressed type early colorectal cancers were detected and treated. When a faint abnormality of the mucosa was suspected by routine videocolonoscopy, 0.1% of indigo carmine solution was sprayed on the mucosal surface (chromoendoscopy). Colonoscopic findings of m-sm1 cancers and moderately and massively extended submucosal (sm2-3) cancers were retrospectively reviewed and compared with confirmed histologic findings.
Characteristic colonoscopic findings needed for surgical operation were as follows: (1) expansion appearance, (2) deep depression surface, (3) irregular bottom of depression surface, and (4) folds converging toward the tumor. By using these findings, the invasion depth of depressed type early colorectal cancers could be correctly determined in 58 of 64 lesions (91%).
Characteristic colonoscopic findings obtained by a combination of videocolonoscopy and chromoendoscopy are useful for determination of the invasion depth of depressed type colorectal cancers, an essential factor in choosing a treatment modality.
"Non-polypoid flat or depressed polyps were excluded. Further, sessile polyps over 15 mm in size and pedunculated polyps over 20 mm in head size were excluded, as were polyps in which malignancy was confirmed by prior biopsy or suspected by gross morphology such as deep depression and a type V pit pattern during endoscopy  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Goals. The purpose of this study is to investigate the learning curve for colonoscopic polypectomy (CP) by trainee endoscopists. Background. The amount of training required to achieve technical competence for CP is uncertain. Study. The CP times and en bloc resection rates of three experienced colonoscopists were obtained from 240 procedures. These data were compared to those of three gastroenterology trainees who performed 750 CP procedures. A trainee procedure was deemed to be a success if en bloc resection was obtained and the CP time was within twice the median CP time of the experienced colonoscopists. Trainees were deemed to be technically competent when they achieved a CP success rate of greater than or equal to 80%. Results. The median CP times and en bloc resection rates for the experienced colonoscopists and trainees were 79 s (range, 20-301 s) and 99.6% (239/240), and 118 s (range, 36-1051 s) and 95.6% (717/750), respectively. The trainee success rate of CP was 72% (540/750). The success rate of the procedure was associated with increased trainee experience (p = 0.003) and reached 80% after 250 procedures. The CP time significantly decreased (p < 0.001) and en bloc resection rate significantly increased (p = 0.011) as trainee experience accumulated. The level of experience was an independent predictor for successful CP. Conclusions. The achievement of technical competence with CP was associated with an accumulation of approximately 250 procedures. These findings suggest that dedicated education and training programs for CP are warranted.
"The basic procedure is conventional endoscopy. The depth of invasion is estimated on the basis of tumor diameter and macroscopic findings, as well as other characteristics of the tumor surface, such as a cracked or distended appearance, friability, spread, and fold convergence [18, 19]. As for the macroscopic findings, the frequency of submucosal cancer is higher among superficial-type tumors than elevated-type tumors . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess the clinical value of magnifying endoscopy combined with EUS for estimating the invasion depth of colorectal tumors.
We studied 168 colorectal adenomas and carcinomas that were sequentially examined by conventional endoscopy followed by magnifying endoscopy and EUS in the same session to evaluate invasion depth. Endoscopic images obtained by each technique were reassessed by 3 endoscopists to determine whether endoscopic resection (adenoma, mucosal cancer, or submucosal cancer with slight invasion) or colectomy (submucosal cancer with massive invasion or advanced cancer) was indicated. The accuracy of differential diagnosis was compared among the examination techniques. The rate of correct differential diagnosis according to endoscopic examination technique was similar. The proportion of lesions that were difficult to diagnose was significantly higher for EUS (15.5%) than for conventional endoscopy and magnifying endoscopy. Among lesions that could be diagnosed, the rate of correct differential diagnosis was the highest for EUS (89.4%), but did not significantly differ among three endoscopic examination techniques. When it is difficult to evaluate the invasion depth of colorectal tumors on conventional endoscopy alone, the combined use of different examination techniques such as EUS may enhance diagnostic accuracy in some lesions.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice 10/2012; 2012(2 i):621512. DOI:10.1155/2012/621512 · 1.75 Impact Factor
"Two new exciting colonoscopic developments beyond the scope of this article include the use of endoscopic mucosal resection, whereby at colonoscopy solution is injected submucosally before polypectomy, and chromoendoscopy, in which characterization of mucosal topography is used to predict histology. The reader is referred to Saitoh and coworkers . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer remains a leading cancer killer worldwide. The disease is both curable and preventable, and yet the importance of widespread screening is only now starting to be appreciated. This article reviews the variety of diagnostic tests, imaging procedures and endoscopic examinations available to detect colorectal cancer and polyps in their early stage and also presents details on various screening options. The critical role of the radiologist is elaborated on including accurate assessment of the tumor extent within the bowel wall and beyond and the detection of lymph node and distant metastases. Staging with CT, MR imaging, endorectal ultrasound, and positron emission tomography are of paramount importance in determining the most appropriate therapy and the risk of tumor recurrence and overall prognosis.
Radiologic Clinics of North America 02/2007; 45(1):85-118. DOI:10.1016/j.rcl.2006.10.003 · 1.98 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.