Identification of mutations and polymorphisms in the factor XI genes of an African American family by dideoxyfingerprinting.
ABSTRACT Congenital deficiency of factor XI is a rare condition associated with a mild to moderate bleeding diathesis that is most commonly found in persons of Jewish ancestry. The disorder has been reported sporadically in a number of other ethnic groups, but rarely in the black population. We report on the genetic analysis of the factor XI genes of two African American patients: a 9-year-old boy (the propositus) with mild factor XI deficiency and his mother. Both individuals have lifelong histories of excessive bleeding. Dideoxyfingerprinting, a technique combining components of single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis and dideoxy-chain termination sequencing, was used in the analysis. Both patients were found to be heterozygous for a mutation changing serine 248 to asparagine [corrected], whereas the propositus was heterozygous for an additional mutation on the paternal allele changing glutamine 226 to arginine. Both mutations reside in the third apple domain of the factor XI heavy chain, an area that has been shown to contain binding sites for factor IX, platelets, and glycosaminoglycans. Previously reported mutations in the factor XI gene seem to cause deficiency primarily by reducing protein expression. Because both alleles in the propositus contain amino acid substitutions, the significant amount of circulating factor XI in his plasma must be comprised entirely of abnormal molecules. Factor XI circulates as a homodimer, and the presence of mutations in both alleles of the factor XI gene suggests that his bleeding disorder is caused in part by the effect of the two abnormal gene products forming dimers in different combinations. Three neutral (not associated with amino acid changes) DNA polymorphisms were also identified in the two subjects: a C to T change at nucleotide 472 in exon 5, A to G at nucleotide 844 in exon 8, and T to C at nucleotide 1234 in exon 11. Analysis of a random sample of normal volunteers showed that these polymorphisms are relatively common, with allele frequencies of 7.4%, 19%, and 18%, respectively. This suggests that there is considerable genetic heterogeneity in the factor XI gene.
Article: Molecular genetic analysis of severe coagulation factor XI deficiency in six Italian patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive coagulopathy which is, however, frequent among Ashkenazi Jews. Two mutations, type II (Glu117stop) and type III (Phe283Leu), account for the majority of abnormal alleles in this population. The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular basis of FXI deficiency in six unrelated Italian probands with severe deficiency, a population hitherto largely unexplored. All patients showed unmeasurable functional FXI levels in plasma. Mutational screening was performed by sequencing. Haplotype analysis was performed using intragenic polymorphisms. Expression studies were performed by transient transfection in COS-1 cells. Sequencing identified two novel mutations: a nonsense mutation (Cys118stop) in exon 5 in two probands, and a 6-bp deletion (643-648delATCGAC) in exon 7 in one proband. The Cys118stop is predicted to cause FXI deficiency by a secretion defect and/or by increased mRNA degradation. The 6-bp deletion causes the loss of residues Ile197 and Asp198. There was a remarkable secretion impairment of the deleted FXI protein. In four of the six probands, the type II mutation was found. Haplotype analysis in patients carrying the type II mutation revealed that they share a common haplotype, perhaps derived from a Jewish ancestor. The identification and characterization of two novel mutations widen the mutational spectrum of FXI deficiency. Haplotype analysis is compatible with a Jewish origin of the type II mutation. The high occurrence of the type II mutation among Italian patients will be helpful to direct future genetic screenings.Haematologica 12/2004; 89(11):1332-40. · 6.42 Impact Factor