Detection of feline coronaviruses by culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of blood samples from healthy cats and cats with clinical feline infectious peritonitis.
ABSTRACT A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of the feline coronavirus (FCoV) genome and a co-cultivation method for the isolation of field strains of FCoV are described. Using the RT-PCR assay to assess blood samples from cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) (n = 47) and healthy cats from households with endemic FCoV (n = 69) it was shown that approximately 80% of the cats were viraemic, irrespective of their health status. It was also shown that, over a 12-month period, a similar percentage of healthy cats remained viraemic, and that the presence of viraemia did not appear to predispose the cats to the development of FIP. The co-cultivation system proved to be a suitable method for the culture of field strains of FCoV from blood samples, so long as the cultures were maintained for at least 4 weeks. Using this system, followed by the RT-PCR, viraemia was detected as frequently as by RT-PCR on RNA extracted directly from peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Article: Feline coronavirus serotypes 1 and 2: seroprevalence and association with disease in Switzerland.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) serotypes 1 and 2 in Switzerland and their association with different disease manifestations, a serological study based on immunofluorescence tests was conducted with Swiss field cats using transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), FCoV type 1 and FCoV type 2 as antigens. A total of 639 serum samples collected in the context of different studies from naturally infected cats were tested. The current study revealed that, with an apparent prevalence of 83%, FCoV serotype 1 is the most prevalent serotype in Switzerland. FCoV type 1 viruses induced higher antibody titers than FCoV type 2, and were more frequently associated with clinical signs and/or feline infectious peritonitis. The antibody development in seven cats experimentally infected with FCoV type 1 revealed that, with progressing duration of infection, antibodies to FCoV type 1 significantly increased over those to FCoV type 2. There was a significant relationship between antibody titers against TGEV, FCoV 1, and FCoV 2 and TGEV antigen detected the highest proportion of seropositive cats. We conclude that a vaccine against FCoV should be based on FCoV type 1-related antigens and that for serodiagnosis of FCoV infection TGEV should be used to attain the highest diagnostic efficiency. When serology is used in addition to clinical signs, hematology, and clinical chemistry results as an aid to diagnose clinical FIP, TGEV shows a diagnostic efficiency equal to that of a FCoV antigen.Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 11/2005; 12(10):1209-15. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical data from 488 cats (1979-2000) with histopathologically confirmed feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and 620 comparable controls were evaluated retrospectively to assess the value of several diagnostic tests frequently used in the evaluation of cats with suspected FIP. Diagnostic utility of serum albumin to globulin ratio for the diagnosis of FIP was greater than of the utility of serum total protein and gamma-globulin concentrations. Diagnostic utility of these variables was higher when performed on effusion. On effusion, positive and negative predictive values of Rivalta's test, a test that distinguishes between exudates and transudates (0.86 and 0.97), anti-coronavirus antibody detection (0.90 and 0.79), and immunofluorescence staining of coronavirus antigen in macrophages (1.00 and 0.57) were investigated. The positive and negative predictive values of presence of anti-coronavirus antibodies were 0.44 and 0.90, respectively, antibody concentrations (1:1,600) were 0.94 and 0.88. presence of immune complexes measured by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were 0.67 and 0.84, and detection of viral RNA by serum reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were 0.90 and 0.47. Effusion RT-PCR was performed in 6 cats; it was positive in all 5 cats with FIP and negative in the cat with another disease. Diagnostic assays on the fluid in cats with body effusion had good predictive values. Definitive diagnosis of FIP on the basis of measurement of various variables in serum was not possible. Serum tests can only be used to facilitate the decision for more invasive diagnostic methods.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 17(6):781-90. · 1.99 Impact Factor