Article

Novel ITGB4 Mutations in Lethal and Nonlethal Variants of Epidermolysis Bullosa with Pyloric Atresia: Missense versus Nonsense

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.
The American Journal of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 10.99). 12/1998; 63(5):1376-87. DOI: 10.1086/302116
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia (EB-PA), an autosomal recessive genodermatosis, manifests with neonatal cutaneous blistering associated with congenital pyloric atresia. The disease is frequently lethal, but nonlethal cases have also been reported. Expression of the alpha6 beta4 integrin is altered at the dermal-epidermal basement-membrane zone; recently, mutations in the corresponding genes (ITGA6 and ITGB4) have been disclosed in a limited number of patients, premature termination codons in both alleles being characteristic of lethal variants. In this study, we have examined the molecular basis of EB-PA in five families, two of them with lethal and three of them with nonlethal variants of the disease. Mutation analysis disclosed novel lesions in both ITGB4 alleles of each proband. One of the patients with lethal EB-PA was a compound heterozygote for premature termination-codon mutations (C738X/4791delCA), whereas the other patient with a lethal variant was homozygous for a missense mutation involving a cysteine residue (C61Y). The three nonlethal cases had missense mutations in both alleles (C562R/C562R, R1281W/R252C, and R1281W/R1281W). Immunofluorescence staining of skin in two of the nonlethal patients and in one of the lethal cases was positive, yet attenuated, for alpha6 and beta4 integrins. These results confirm that ITGB4 mutations underlie EB-PA and show that missense mutations may lead to nonlethal phenotypes.

Full-text

Available from: Leena Pulkkinen, May 28, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
53 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Since 2010, four Charolais calves with a congenital mechanobullous skin disorder that were born in the same herd from consanguineous matings were reported to us. Clinical and histopathological examination revealed lesions that are compatible with junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). Results Fifty-four extended regions of homozygosity (>1 Mb) were identified after analysing the whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data from the only case available for DNA sampling at the beginning of the study. Filtering of variants located in these regions for (i) homozygous polymorphisms observed in the WGS data from eight healthy Charolais animals and (ii) homozygous or heterozygous polymorphisms found in the genomes of 234 animals from different breeds did not reveal any deleterious candidate SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) or small indels. Subsequent screening for structural variants in candidate genes located in the same regions identified a homozygous deletion that includes exons 17 to 23 of the integrin beta 4 (ITGB4), a gene that was previously associated with the same defect in humans. Genotyping of a second case and of six parents of affected calves (two sires and four dams) revealed a perfect association between this mutation and the assumed genotypes of the individuals. Mining of Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip genotyping data from 6870 Charolais cattle detected only 44 heterozygous animals for a 5.6-Mb haplotype around ITGB4 that was shared with the carriers of the mutation. Interestingly, none of the 16 animals genotyped for the deletion carried the mutation, which suggests a rather recent origin for the mutation. Conclusions In conclusion, we successfully identified the causative mutation for a very rare autosomal recessive mutation with only one case by exploiting the most recent DNA sequencing technologies. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12711-015-0110-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Genetics Selection Evolution 05/2015; 47(1). DOI:10.1186/s12711-015-0110-z · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hemidesmosome is a specialized transmembrane complex that mediates the binding of epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane. In the skin, this multiprotein structure can be regarded as the chief adhesion unit at the site of the dermal-epidermal junction. Focal adhesions are additional specialized attachment structures located between hemidesmosomes. The integrity of the skin relies on well-assembled and functional hemidesmosomes and focal adhesions (also known as integrin adhesomes). However, if these adhesion structures are impaired, e.g., as a result of circulating autoantibodies or inherited genetic mutations, the mechanical strength of the skin is compromised, leading to blistering and/or tissue inflammation. A particular clinical presentation emerges subject to the molecule that is targeted. None of these junctional complexes are simply compounds of adhesion molecules; they also play a significant role in signalling pathways involved in the differentiation and migration of epithelial cells such as during wound healing and in tumour invasion. We summarize current knowledge about hereditary and acquired blistering diseases emerging from pathologies of the hemidesmosome and its neighbouring proteins as components of the dermal-epidermal junction.
    Cell and Tissue Research 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00441-014-2021-7 · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The dental epithelium and extracellular matrix interact to ensure that cell growth and differentiation lead to the formation of teeth of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of fibronectin in differentiation of the dental epithelium and tooth formation, we analyzed its expression in developing incisors. Fibronectin mRNA was expressed during the presecretory stage in developing dental epithelium, decreased in the secretory and early maturation stages, and then reappeared during the late maturation stage. The binding of dental epithelial cells derived from postnatal day-1 molars to a fibronectin-coated dish was inhibited by the RGD but not RAD peptide, and by a β1 integrin-neutralizing antibody, suggesting that fibronectin-β1 integrin interactions contribute to dental epithelial-cell binding. Because fibronectin and β1 integrin are highly expressed in the dental mesenchyme, it is difficult to determine precisely how their interactions influence dental epithelial differentiation in vivo . Therefore, we analyzed β1 integrin conditional knockout mice ( Intβ1<sup>lox-/lox-</sup>/K14-Cre ) and found that they exhibited partial enamel hypoplasia, and delayed eruption of molars and differentiation of ameloblasts, but not of odontoblasts. Furthermore, a cyst-like structure was observed during late ameloblast maturation. Dental epithelial cells from knockout mice did not bind to fibronectin, and induction of ameloblastin expression in these cells by neurotrophic factor-4 was inhibited by treatment with RGD peptide or a fibronectin siRNA, suggesting that the epithelial interaction between fibronectin and β1 integrin is important for ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(4-4):e0121667. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121667 · 3.53 Impact Factor