Conformational and dynamic changes of Yersinia protein tyrosine phosphatase induced by ligand binding and active site mutation and revealed by H/D exchange and electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPase) play important roles in the intracellular signal transduction pathways that regulate cell transformation, growth, and proliferation. Here, solvent accessibility is determined for backbone amide protons from various segments of wild-type Yersinia PTPase in the presence or absence of 220 microM vanadate, a competitive inhibitor, as well as an active site mutant in which the essential cysteine 403 has been replaced by serine (C403S). The method consists of solution-phase H/D exchange, followed by pepsin digestion, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electrospray ionization high-field (9.4 T) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Proteolytic segments spanning approximately 93.5% of the primary sequence are analyzed. Binding of vanadate reduces the H/D exchange rate throughout the protein, both for the WpD loop and for numerous other residues that are shielded when that loop is pulled down over the active site on binding of the inhibitor. The single active site C403S mutation reduces solvent access to the WpD loop itself, but opens up the structure in several other segments. Although the 3D structure of the ligand-bound C403S mutant is similar to that of the wild-type PTPase, and the C403S mutant and the wild-type enzyme display similar affinities for vanadate, the thermodynamics for binding of vanadate is different for the two proteins. Collectively, these results establish the flexibility of the WpD loop (previously inferred by comparing PTPase X-ray single-cyrstal diffraction structures in the presence and absence of a tungstate inhibitor), as well as several other signficant changes in segment exposure and/or flexibility that are not evident from X-ray structures.
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ABSTRACT: Mass analysis of proteolytic fragment peptides following hydrogen/deuterium exchange offers a general measure of solvent accessibility/hydrogen bonding (and thus conformation) of solution-phase proteins and their complexes. The primary problem in such mass analyses is reliable and rapid assignment of mass spectral peaks to the correct charge state and degree of deuteration of each fragment peptide, in the presence of substantial overlap between isotopic distributions of target peptides, autolysis products, and other interferant species. Here, we show that at sufficiently high mass resolving power (m/Delta m(50%) > or = 100,000), it becomes possible to resolve enough of those overlaps so that automated data reduction becomes possible, based on the actual elemental composition of each peptide without the need to deconvolve isotopic distributions. We demonstrate automated, rapid, reliable assignment of peptide masses from H/D exchange experiments, based on electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectra from H/D exchange of solution-phase myoglobin. Combined with previously demonstrated automated data acquisition for such experiments, the present data reduction algorithm enhances automation (and thus expands generality and applicability) for high-resolution mass spectrometry-based analysis of H/D exchange of solution-phase proteins.Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 04/2010; 21(4):550-8. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry is an important non-perturbing tool to study protein structure and protein–protein interactions. However, water in the reversed-phase liquid chromatography mobile phase leads to back-exchange of D for H during chromatographic separation of proteolytic peptides following H/D exchange, resulting in incorrect identification of fast-exchanging hydrogens as unexchanged hydrogens. Previously, fast high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography have been shown to decrease back-exchange. Here, we show that replacement of up to 40% of the water in the LC mobile phase by the modifiers, dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) (i.e., polar organic modifiers that lack rapid exchanging hydrogens), significantly reduces back-exchange. On-line LC micro-ESI FT-ICR MS resolves overlapped proteolytic peptide isotopic distributions, allowing for quantitative determination of the extent of back-exchange. The DMF modified solvent composition also improves chromatographic separation while reducing back-exchange relative to conventional solvent.Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 02/2012; 23(4):699-707. · 3.59 Impact Factor
Article: A solar fryer[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The design and operation of a large-area frying pan heated by solar radiation is described. A mirror below the pan directs the radiation to the pan bottom, which is coated with a low-emissivity black absorber. The mirror uses flat, hexagonal panels of aluminized-Mylar to provide uniform illumination across most of the pan bottom. The mirror mount allows 8h/day operation with a single mirror-angle adjustment, plus a seasonal mounting adjustment for full-year use. A 0.46m (18″) diameter pan and ∼1.2m (48″) diameter mirror are used in the prototype, which is designed for cooking 0.42m diameter slices of injera bread in East Africa. The prototype provides ∼640W of heating power (60% efficiency compared to the full mirror area), and loses ∼100W while cooking the bread. This allows for cooking ∼4kg of bread per hour. The pan preheats to the 180°C cooking temperature in 15–20min. Materials and design are chosen for low-cost, and the prototype US-retail materials cost is ∼100US$. The design is scalable to any desired pan size, with cost proportional to pan area. Most of the construction requires only hand tools, encouraging production in the country of use.Solar Energy - SOLAR ENERG. 01/2011; 85(3):496-505.