Periodontal conditions and salivary immunoglobulins in individuals with Down syndrome.
ABSTRACT Periodontal conditions and salivary levels of immunoglobulins sIgA, IgM, and IgG subclass distribution and albumin, quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were determined in 20 patients with Down syndrome and 19 healthy controls. Gingival inflammation was more extensive (P < 0.05) among Down syndrome subjects compared to controls as well as the occurrence of periodontal pockets (> 4 mm) (P < 0.05). The immunoglobulin levels of sIgA, IgM, the sum of IgG subclasses, and the concentration of albumin did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. However, the proportion of IgG1 expressed as percentage of the sum of total IgG was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the Down syndrome group compared to controls. On the contrary, the proportion of IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 subclasses in saliva did not differ between the 2 groups. The results indicate an altered distribution of IgG subclasses in saliva, with a higher proportion of IgG1 in Down syndrome individuals compared to controls.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the oral health status and investigate the association of oral health status with various socio-demographic (age, gender, parent's education, income) and clinical variables (aetiology for mental disability and IQ level) among mentally disabled subjects. The study sample comprised 225 mentally retarded subjects aged 12-30 years attending a special school in Udaipur, India. Caries status, oral hygiene status and periodontal status were assessed by DMFT Index, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) of Greene and Vermillion and Community Periodontal Index, respectively. Chi-square test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed for statistical analysis. There was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001) between all the age groups in all the variables of Oral hygiene index and DMFT index. The oldest age group had the highest scores for all the indices measured. Having Down's syndrome, parents with lower educational status and low I.Q. were the most important predictors for poor oral health status. The present study highlighted that the oral health status of this mentally retarded population was poor and was influenced by aetiology of the disability, I.Q. level, and parent's level of education.Journal of Oral Science 09/2009; 51(3):333-40.