Hepatitis D virus antigen in HBsAg positive chronic liver disease in Nigeria.
ABSTRACT Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is strongly associated with an aggressive type of chronic active liver disease (CALD) and hepatocellular carcinoma, which tend to present in the relatively young, in sub-Saharan Africa. It is known that co-existent infection with HDV tends to aggravate the course of HBV-associated liver disease. This study was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis D virus (HDV) among thirty one consecutive southwestern Nigerians with HBsAg-positive, HCV antibody-negative chronic liver disease. Alongside, we tested for HBsAg and the HDV antigen in fifty randomly selected sera each from blood donors and university freshmen undergoing pre-admission medical tests and who had no clinical evidence of liver disease. The HDV antigen (HDVAg) was found in the sera of two of 31 (6.5%) patients. Among the blood donors and university freshmen, HBsAg prevalence was twelve and eight per cent respectively, while HDVAg was present in none. In addition, liver biopsies of 28 other patients were stained for HDVAg. None of these was positive. These findings show that HDV prevalence is low in our community, and suggest that the virus might play only a minor role in the pathogenesis of HBsAg-associated chronic liver disease among our patients. A review of reports on the epidemiology of HDV in sub-Saharan Africa shows a rather complicated pattern that makes its impact on HBsAg-associated CALD difficult to assess. More studies designed to elucidate this pattern of HDV epidemiology are called for.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To re-assess the prevalence and patient characteristics of hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection among hepatitis B patients in inner city London. METHODS: All hepatitis B patients attending clinics over a 52 months period were tested for HDV antibody. All reactive samples were also tested for anti-HDV IgM and RNA. The characteristics of HDV seronegative patients first seen in the calendar year 2008 were compared with all HDV seropositive patients in the cohort. RESULTS: Of 1048 hepatitis B patients, 11 had equivocal anti-HDV serology (1%) and 22 were HDV seropositive (2.1%, 95%CI 1.39 - 3.16%); 12 were anti-HDV IgM positive and 15 HDV RNA positive. No patient with equivocal anti-HDV serology had detectable HDV RNA. Five HDV seropositive patients were intravenous drug users (22.7%); 17/22 were from abroad with 11/22 (50%) from sub-Saharan Africa. HDV seropositive patients had poorer laboratory parameters and were more likely to have evidence of cirrhosis. Triple infected (HIV/HBV/HDV) patients were also more likely to have cirrhosis than HIV/HBV dually-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HDV in hepatitis B patients in inner city London was about 2%. The role of migration from endemic countries should be recognised.The Journal of infection 03/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sylvester Chuks Nwokediuko, Department of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku OzallaChronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global public health problem because of its worldwide distribution and its potential to cause sequelae. HBV is most prevalent in China, South East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Amazon basin of South America where health care resources are most limited. Numerous challenges exist for effective management of chronic HBV infection, particularly in resource-limited regions. These challenges include lack of accurate prevalence data, absence of a surveillance program, and poor political will of governments in resource-poor countries to enforce effective measures to control the disease. There is a lack of understanding regarding HBV infec-tion by both the general public and health care providers. A better understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of this condition is necessary. The acute shortage of trained medical manpower necessary for accurate diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepati-tis B (CHB) in resource-poor countries is a formidable challenge. The condition is com-plicated by the continuing efflux of medical graduates from low-income economies to richer countries. The most critical problem in the management of CHB is the high cost of laboratory tests and drugs. Drugs are also not readily available. Other challenges in the manage-ment of CHB include stigmatization of patients, co-infection with other viruses, lack of management guidelines, and absence of an effective patient referral system. To address these challenges, governments of resource-poor nations must be committed to budg-etary allocation for the implementation of health programs. It is necessary to provide awareness campaigns, health education, proper screening of blood and blood products for transfusion, active screening, intensification of existing childhood immunization, technical and financial assistance from wealthier nations, and implementation of the recommendations outlined in the Global Hepatitis Policy (2010).Hepatitis Monthly 10/2011; 11(10):786-93. · 1.25 Impact Factor