The Fanconi anaemia group G gene FANCG is identical with XRCC9.
ABSTRACT Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease with diverse clinical symptoms including developmental anomalies, bone marrow failure and early occurrence of malignancies. In addition to spontaneous chromosome instability, FA cells exhibit cell cycle disturbances and hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents. Eight complementation groups (A-H) have been distinguished, each group possibly representing a distinct FA gene. The genes mutated in patients of complementation groups A (FANCA; refs 4,5) and C (FANCC; ref. 6) have been identified, and FANCD has been mapped to chromosome band 3p22-26 (ref. 7). An additional FA gene has recently been mapped to chromosome 9p (ref. 8). Here we report the identification of the gene mutated in group G, FANCG, on the basis of complementation of an FA-G cell line and the presence of pathogenic mutations in four FA-G patients. We identified the gene as human XRCC9, a gene which has been shown to complement the MMC-sensitive Chinese hamster mutant UV40, and is suspected to be involved in DNA post-replication repair or cell cycle checkpoint control. The gene is localized to chromosome band 9p13 (ref. 9), corresponding with a known localization of an FA gene.
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ABSTRACT: PALB2 was first identified as a partner of BRCA2 that mediates its recruitment to sites of DNA damage. PALB2 was subsequently found as a tumor suppressor gene. Inherited heterozygosity for this gene is associated with an increased risk of cancer of the breast and other sites. Additionally, biallelic mutation of PALB2 is linked to Fanconi anemia, which also has an increased risk of developing malignant disease. Recent work has identified numerous interactions of PALB2, suggesting that it functions in a network of proteins encoded by tumor suppressors. Notably, many of these tumor suppressors are related to the cellular response to DNA damage. The recruitment of PALB2 to DNA double-strand breaks at the head of this network is via a ubiquitin-dependent signaling pathway that involves the RAP80, Abraxas and BRCA1 tumor suppressors. Next, PALB2 interacts with BRCA2, which is a tumor suppressor, and with the RAD51 recombinase. These interactions promote DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR). More recently, PALB2 has been found to bind the RAD51 paralog, RAD51C, as well as the translesion polymerase pol η, both of which are tumor suppressors with functions in HR. Further, an interaction with MRG15, which is related to chromatin regulation, may facilitate DNA repair in damaged chromatin. Finally, PALB2 interacts with KEAP1, a regulator of the response to oxidative stress. The PALB2 network appears to mediate the maintenance of genome stability, may explain the association of many of the corresponding genes with similar spectra of tumors, and could present novel therapeutic opportunities.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer 07/2014; · 7.58 Impact Factor
- Haematologica 04/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous syndrome associated with increased cancer predisposition. The underlying genes govern the FA pathway which functions to protect the genome during the S-phase of the cell cycle. While upregulation of FA genes has been linked to chemotherapy resistance, little is known about their regulation in response to proliferative stimuli. The purpose of this study was to examine how FA genes are regulated, especially in relation to the cell cycle, in order to reveal their possible participation in biochemical networks. Expression of 14 FA genes was monitored in two human cell-cycle models and in two RB1/E2F pathway-associated primary cancers, retinoblastoma and basal breast cancer. In silico studies were performed to further evaluate coregulation and identify connected networks and diseases. Only FANCA was consistently induced over 2-fold; FANCF failed to exhibit any regulatory fluctuations. Two tools exploiting public data sets indicated coregulation of FANCA with BRCA1. Upregulation of FANCA and BRCA1 correlated with upregulation of E2F3. Genes coregulated with both FANCA and BRCA1 were enriched for MeSH-Term id(s) genomic instability, microcephaly, and Bloom syndrome, and enriched for the cellular component centrosome. The regulation of FA genes appears highly divergent. In RB1-linked tumors, upregulation of FA network genes was associated with reduced expression of FANCF. FANCA and BRCA1 may jointly act in a subnetwork - supporting vital function(s) at the subcellular level (centrosome) as well as at the level of embryonic development (mechanisms controlling head circumference).SpringerPlus 01/2014; 3:381.