Effects of physical exercise on bone mass, balance skill and aerobic capacity in women and men with low bone mineral density, after one year of training - a prospective study

Primary Health Care Centre, Vadstena, Sweden.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports (Impact Factor: 3.17). 10/1998; 8(5 Pt 1):290-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.1998.tb00485.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vadstena is a small community in the county of Ostergötland, Sweden, where a project began in 1989 to prevent osteoporosis and to lower the expected incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Persons aged 40-70 years who had a low bone mineral density (BMD) value at screening of the distal radius by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) were invited to participate in a training study during one year. The definition of low BMD was a densitometry value below -1 SD (standard deviation) from a sex- and age-specific reference value (z-score). Fifteen persons wanted to exercise in a group and 15 persons wanted to become a control group. All participants answered a questionnaire about lifestyle, occupation, diseases, medication and heredity. Clinical tests were made regarding mobility of the joints and muscles, balance and physical fitness. BMD for the hip and the lumbar spine were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after the investigation period. The training programme was carried out for 60 min twice a week during one year and had the intention to improve bone mass, muscle strength and flexibility, balance skill and aerobic capacity. After the training period there was a significant increase in BMD at the greater trochanter (P < 0.01), in balance skill (standing on one leg with closed eyes and "ski step"-test) (P < 0.05) and in oxygen uptake capacity (P < 0.05) in the exercise group. In the control group, there was a significant increase in BMD at the lumbar spine (P < 0.05). However, these results should be judged with caution because several participants were over the age of 60, and at that age degenerative changes in the lumbar spine may increase to a greater or lesser extent. Regular weight-bearing exercises during one year seem to influence BMD at the greater trochanter in a training group comprising both women and men. However, our study was small in number and further training studies are needed to assess the effect of weight-bearing training on bone mass in different sex- and age-specific groups.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe how vestibular rehabilitation influences pain and range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness, and to describe whether pain or range of motion correlated with balance performance or self-perceived dizziness handicap. Subjects: A total of 29 patients, 20 women and 9 men, age range 22-76 years. Methods: Patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness were randomized to either intervention (vestibular rehabilitation) or control. Neck pain intensity, cervical range of motion (CROM), balance and self-perceived dizziness handicap were measured at baseline, 6 weeks and 3 months. Results: There were no differences in neck pain intensity or CROM between the 2 groups either at baseline, 6 weeks or 3 months (p = 0.10-0.89). At baseline, neck pain intensity correlated with CROM (-0.406) and self-perceived dizziness handicap (0.492). CROM correlated with self-perceived dizziness handicap and with 1 balance measure (-0.432). Neck pain intensity did not correlate with balance performance (-0.188-0.049). Conclusion: Neck pain intensity and CROM was not influenced by vestibular rehabilitation. Importantly, the programme did not appear to increase pain or decrease neck motion, as initially thought. Neck pain intensity and CROM correlated with self-perceived dizziness handicap. CROM also correlated with 1 balance measure.
    Journal of rehabilitation medicine: official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 08/2013; DOI:10.2340/16501977-1197 · 1.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AVEIRO, M.C., NAVEGA, M.T., GRANITO, R.N., RENNÓ, A.C.M., OISHI, J. The effects of a physical exercise program on the balance, on the quadriceps muscle strength and on the quality of life in osteoporotic women. R. bras. Ci.e Mov. 2004; 12(3): 33-38. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of a physical exercise program to improve muscle strength of quadriceps, balance and quality of life of osteoporotic women. 16 women with densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis in the spine and/or femur, with 60 - 74 years of age (67.2 ± 3.7), participated in this study. All subjects were submitted to an extension muscle torque evaluation, through a BIODEX isokynetic dynamometer, to a balance evaluation and answered a quality of life questionaire (OPAQ). Afterwards they were submitted to the physical training, orientated by a physiotherapist, during 12 weeks, with a frequency of three times per week. Each session included walking, stretching exercisers and exercisers to the extension muscles of the knee. After this period, the subjects were evaluated. The data were statiscally analyzed by Wilcoxon nonparametric test and showed significant difference between evaluations (p< 0,05). The results found in this study allow concluding that the physical exercise program was efficient to improve the extension muscles torque of the knee, balance and quality of life of osteoporotic women, suggesting to be an effective and safe training program to osteoporotic women.
  • Source