Self-Initiated Quitting among Adolescent Smokers

Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 90033, USA.
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.09). 09/1998; 27(5 Pt 3):A19-28. DOI: 10.1006/pmed.1998.0379
Source: PubMed


This paper reviews the literature regarding predictors of adolescent self-initiated smoking cessation and investigates self-initiated smoking cessation among a large sample of alternative high school youth in southern California. Youth transfer to alternative schools because of academic or behavioral problems, and they are at relatively high risk for cigarette smoking.
Several demographic (e.g., gender), behavioral (e.g., level of smoking), and psychosocial (e.g., risk-taking) predictors of adolescent smoking cessation were investigated. The alternative high school cohort provided a sufficient sample size of quitters (defined as no use in the past 30 days, measured after a 1-year period) to permit a prospective examination of adolescent smoking cessation.
Although nine demographic, behavioral, or psychosocial variables discriminated among quitters and nonquitters in univariate analyses, only level of baseline smoking, smoking intention, and perceived stress were predictors in a final multivariable model.
Based on the literature review and findings among the cohort, smoking cessation programs for adolescents should include counteraction of problem-prone attitudes, support of wellness attitudes, provision of motivation to quit strategies, and assistance with overcoming withdrawal symptoms.

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Available from: Brian R Flay, Jul 11, 2015
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    • "doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.04.009 months [1]. Adolescent smokers face difficult withdrawal symptoms and failed quit attempts, with many reporting relapse within six months of their initial quit attempt; however , many are motivated to quit and successful adolescent smoking cessation has been associated with student-level variation across social and psychological factors such as parental and peer support, healthy lifestyles, and psychosocial coping skills [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]. A variety of tobacco control policies were enacted over the past two decades that aim to prevent smoking initiation and encourage cessation among adolescents. "
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    ABSTRACT: Research on the effects of state-level tobacco control policies targeted at youth has been mixed, with little on the effects of these policies and youth smoking cessation. This study explored the association between state-level tobacco control policies and youth smoking cessation behaviors from 1991 to 2006. The study design was a population-based, nested survey of students within states. Study participants were 8th, 10th, and 12th graders who reported smoking "regularly in the past" or "regularly now" from the Monitoring the Future study. Main cessation outcome measures were: any quit attempt; want to quit; non-continuation of smoking; and discontinuation of smoking. Results showed that cigarette price was positively associated with a majority of cessation-related measures among high school smokers. Strength of sales to minors' laws was also associated with adolescent non-continuation of smoking among 10th and 12th graders. Findings suggest that increasing cigarette price can encourage cessation-related behaviors among high school smokers. Evidence-based policy, such as tax increases on tobacco products, should be included as an important part of comprehensive tobacco control policy, which can have a positive effect on decreasing smoking prevalence and increasing smoking cessation among youth.
    Health Policy 10/2010; 97(2-3):136-44. DOI:10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.04.009 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    • "Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a major public health concern given the frequent persistence of this behavior into adulthood, resulting in significant health risks. Yet, investigations of adolescent smokers consistently indicate the majority are seriously thinking about quitting and frequently attempt to modify cigarette smoking behaviors without formal treatment (i.e., engage in self-change efforts such as quit attempts) (Burt & Peterson, 1998; Sussman et al., 1998b; Holden, Hund, Gable, & Mowery, 2003). However, little is known about the self-change process in youth or about potentially important factors such as gender that may influence self-change efforts. "
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    ABSTRACT: Little information describes how adolescents change their smoking behavior. This study investigated the role of gender in the relationship of motivation and cognitive variables with adolescent smoking self-change efforts. Self-report and semi-structured interview data from a prospective study of smoking self-change efforts were examined among 98 adolescent smokers ages 14-18 (55% female). Social disapproval motives and short-term consequence reasons for quitting, quit self-efficacy and intentions to quit were modeled in relation to prospective self-quit attempts assessed at a 6-month follow-up, separately by gender. Hypothesized mediating relationships were not supported although gender differences were noted. Social influence motives related to intention to quit and prospective self-quit attempts among girls. For boys, intention to quit predicted making a self-quit attempt. Findings emphasize the importance of examining adolescent models separately by gender and contribute to understanding of mechanisms involved in adolescent smoking change efforts.
    Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 09/2009; 19(1):48-65. DOI:10.1080/10678280903400644 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    • "Only a few longitudinal studies have investigated predictors of smoking cessation among youngsters (e.g. Engels et al. 1998; Rose et al. 1996; Zhu et al, 1999; Sussman et al, 1998). Nevertheless, some interesting results have emerged. "
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    ABSTRACT: During adolescence young people are known to try out a range of risk behaviours, including smoking. Even though the detrimental health consequences of smoking are well known, the prevalence of smoking among Dutch adolescents remains high. Until today, efforts to control adolescent smoking are mainly focused on the prevention of smoking, whereas fewer efforts are made towards facilitating smoking cessation. Since the chance of a successful attempt to cease smoking diminishes the longer that people smoke, it is important that cessation interventions also focus on adolescents. However, compared to the many reports on predictors of smoking initiation, the literature addressing adolescent smoking cessation is rather limited, and the field is still considered to be underdeveloped. To facilitate the planning and development of programs to promote cessation among adolescents who smoke, the current thesis presents a number of studies that focus on identifying and studying potential determinants of smoking cessation, as well as determinants of important parameters of successful cessation such as readiness to quit smoking and undertaking quit attempts. Multiple levels of influence on the process of adolescent smoking cessation are considered and tested, including addiction, psychological and environmental factors. In addition, predictions and assumptions of several theories that are frequently used in explaining health behaviour, such as the Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory, were tested in their applications to adolescent smoking cessation.
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