Like mother, like child: Intergenerational patterns of age at first birth and associations with childhood and adolescent characteristics and adult outcomes in the second generation. Developmental Psychology, 34, 1220-1232
A 30-year follow-up of 1,758 inner-city children and their mothers in the Pathways to Adulthood Study revealed significant associations in transgenerational timing of age at 1st birth between mothers and their daughters and sons. Intergenerational age patterns were associated with the children's family and personal characteristics during childhood and adolescence and self-sufficiency at age 27-33. Continuity in teenage parenthood was associated with family and personal characteristics unfavorable for optimal child development and successful adult outcomes. Delay in 1st parenthood to age 25 or older was associated with significantly greater odds of more favorable environmental and developmental characteristics and greater adult self-sufficiency. The authors concluded that age at 1st birth of both mothers and children contributes, but in subtly different ways for daughters and sons, to the children's development and adult self-sufficiency.
"Findings from a prospective study of female youth in the US showed that a low grade point average (GPA) in grade 8 was significantly associated with teenage pregnancy in a follow-up four years later (Scaramella et al., 1998). These findings are supported by another study from the US which showed that adolescents with a low GPA had a higher risk of teenage pregnancy than those with a high GPA who delayed their pregnancy until their 20s (Hardy et al., 1998). In a study of urban adolescents in the US, it was found that low academic skills were often associated with pregnancy, rather than pregnancy causing high school dropouts and a life of poverty (Gordon, 1996). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gender affects this relationship among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1,954 students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda (72% response rate). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis. 1,179 (60.3%) students in our study sample reported having debuted sexually. Of these 440 (42.2%) used condoms inconsistently with new sexual partners, and 344 (33.6%) had had multiple sexual partners. We found a statistically significant association between poor academic performance and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner and this association remained significant even after adjusting for all the potential confounders. There was no such association detected regarding multiple sexual partners. We also found that gender modified the effect of poor academic performance on inconsistent condom use. Females, who were poor academic performers, were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use than their male counterparts. Interventions should be designed to provide extra support to poor academic performers, which may improve their performance and self-esteem, which in turn might reduce their risky sexual behaviors.
Global journal of health science 07/2014; 6(4):30889. DOI:10.5539/gjhs.v6n4p183
"Children of adolescent mothers show poorer eductional achievement, and this effect is more important for boys compared to girls . In addition they have a higher probability of not reaching self-sufficiency standards in adult life, such as a higher educational level and financial independence, and of becoming adolescent parents themselves with the risks and personal costs associated with early parenthood [8-10]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregnancy in adolescence tends to repeat over generations. This event has been little studied in middle and low-income societies undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition. To assess this association it is important to adjust for socioeconomic conditions at different points in lifetime. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the independent effect of adolescent childbearing in a generation on its recurrence in the subsequent generation, after adjusting for socioeconomic status at different points in life.
The study was conducted on a prospective cohort of singleton liveborn females from the city of Ribeirao Preto, Brazil, evaluated in 1978/79, and their daughters assessed in 2002/04. A total of 1059 mother-daughter pairs were evaluated. The women who had their first childbirth before 20 years of age were considered to be adolescent mothers. The risk of childbearing in adolescence for the daughter was modeled as a function of the occurrence of teenage childbearing in her mother, after adjustment for socio-demographic variables in a Poisson regression model.
The rate of childbearing during adolescence was 31.4% in 1978/79 and 17.1% in 2002/04. Among the daughters of the 1st generation adolescent mothers, this rate was 26.7%, as opposed to 12.7% among the daughters of non adolescent mothers. After adjustments the risk of adolescent childbearing for the 2nd generation was 35% higher for women whose mothers had been pregnant during adolescence -- RR = 1.35 (95%CI 1.04-1.74).
Adolescent childbearing in the 1st generation was a predictor of adolescent childbearing in the 2nd, regardless of socioeconomic factors determined at different points in lifetime.
"An intergenerational look towards food insecurity may yield insight on the coping factors utilized by families. For example, studies that have measured " self-sufficiency, " a composite measure that includes independence from public assistance such as SNAP or TANF, have found that factors such as being born to a teen parent have an impact on the subsequent generation's ability to be " self-sufficient " (Hardy et al., 1998). Additionally, exposure to toxic stress early in life affects parenting strategies, work success, and relationship choices—all of which have an impact on the health and wellbeing of young children, who then may experience toxic stress similar to the stress that their own parents did as children. "
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