Villous trophoblast in the human placenta consists of a population of proliferating stem cells which differentiate and individually fuse into the syncytiotrophoblast. We studied the apoptotic cascade in this complex epithelial layer by immunohistochemical localization of Fas, FasL, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, pro-caspase-3 and caspase-3, T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-related protein (TIAR), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), lamin B, topoisomerase IIalpha, and transglutaminase II in cryostat and paraffin-fixed tissue sections from normal human first-trimester and term placental villi. The relationship between the apoptotic cascade and syncytial fusion was studied by coincubation of intact villi with FITC-coupled annexin-V, to detect the phosphatidylserine flip, and propidium iodide, to detect plasma membrane permeability. The final events of the apoptotic cascade were studied by the TUNEL reaction and ultrastructural appearance of the trophoblast. The phosphatidylserine flip was identified in some of the villous cytotrophoblastic cells, but the presence of both Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 proteins presumably prevented continuation of the apoptotic cascade. The syncytiotrophoblast demonstrated heterogeneous findings, suggesting variable progression along the apoptotic cascade. In some areas Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 predominated, with preservation of the nuclear proteins PARP, lamin B, and topoisomerase IIalpha; in other areas, especially in and around syncytial sprouts, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 were absent, accompanied by loss of nuclear proteins, presence of phosphatidylserine flip, and TUNEL positivity. These data suggest that the apoptotic cascade is initiated in the villous cytotrophoblast, which in turn promotes syncytial fusion. Donation of anti-apoptotic proteins into the syncytium, such as Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, focally inhibits further progression along this cascade. Completion of the apoptotic cascade takes place in and around syncytial sprouts, providing further evidence that these are the sites of trophoblast shedding into the maternal circulation.
"Furthermore , ST are submitted to the continuous supply of cellular material provided by the fusion of underlying CT. Aging cytoplasmic content and nuclei are clustered and shed into the maternal circulation through ST-derived particles in 3–4 weeks  . It has been estimated that around 1 × 10 8 ST-derived particles are shed over the entire gestational period   . "
"We interpret these results as suggesting that, while the placenta has evolved a large surface area to provide nutrients, gas exchange, and waste removal and to act as a partial barrier to nurture and protect the developing fetus, a mechanism evolved to control protein production in the multinucleate syncytium. Our snRNA data, supported by previous reports of transcriptional down-regulation, suggest that one such mechanism of protein regulation is transcriptional down-regulation in the syncytium (Huppertz et al., 1998; Ellery et al., 2009; Huppertz, 2010). The extent of the reported syncytial nuclei with transcriptional reduction is most likely a reflection of the techniques employed. "
"According to the second theory, SNAs are suggested to be derived from aged/dying regions of the syncytiotrophoblast. According to this theory, aged or damaged nuclei are clustered together into regions of the syncytiotrophoblast which are then extruded from the villous surface as the final stage of the life cycle of the villous trophoblast  . It is also common for epithelia, such as those found in the gut and skin, to desquamate aged cells from the relevant barrier layer . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ask where the maternofetal interface is and placental biologists will tell you, the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous cytotrophoblasts. While correct, this is not full extent of the maternofetal interface. Trophoblast debris that is extruded into the maternal blood in all pregnancies expands the maternofetal interface to sites remote from the uterus. Trophoblast debris ranges from multinucleated syncytial nuclear aggregates to subcellular micro- and nano-vesicles. The origins of trophoblast debris are not clear. Some propose trophoblast debris is the end of the life-cycle of the trophoblast and that it results from an apoptosis-like cell death, but this is not universally accepted. Knowing whether trophoblast debris results from an apoptosis-like cell death is important because the nature of cell death that produced trophoblast debris will influence the maternal responses to it. Trophoblast debris is challenging to isolate from maternal blood making it difficult to study. However, by culturing placental explants in Netwells™ we can readily harvest trophoblast debris from beneath the Netwells™ which is very similar to debris that has been isolated from pregnant women. We have found that trophoblast debris from normal placentae shows markers of apoptosis and is phagocytosed by macrophages or endothelial cells, producing a tolerant phenotype in the phagocyte. Whereas, when we culture normal placental explants with factors such as antiphospholipid antibodies (a strong maternal risk factor for preeclampsia), or IL-6 (which is found at increased levels in the sera of preeclamptic women), the death process in the syncytiotrophoblast changes, such that the trophoblast debris becomes more necrotic. Phagocytosis of this necrotic debris leads to activation of endothelial cells. Trophoblast debris greatly expands the maternofetal interface and the nature of that debris is likely to strongly influence the responses of the maternal vascular and immune systems to the debris.
Hua Zhang, Sarita Panula, Sophie Petropoulos, Daniel Edsgärd, Kiran Busayavalasa, Lian Liu, Xin Li, Sanjiv Risal, Yan Shen, Jingchen Shao, [...], Romana Raphaela Gerner, Mona Sheikhi, Pauliina Damdimopoulou, Rickard Sandberg, Iyadh Douagi, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Lin Liu, Fredrik Lanner, Outi Hovatta, Kui Liu
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