Double-contrast radiographic assessment of lupus-associated enteropathy.
ABSTRACT To describe the double-contrast radiographic features of lupus-associated enteropathy.
Six patients with systemic lupus erythematosus involving the small bowel were assessed by double-contrast radiography of the duodenum and small intestine, with reference to clinical manifestations and jejunoscopic findings.
Lupus-associated enteropathy could be categorized into two types: acute onset enteritis in four patients and protein-losing enteropathy with hyperlipidaemia in two patients. The former group presented with irregular thickening and spiculation in the folds of the multiple segments of the duodenum to the terminal ileum, and they were frequently accompanied by thumbprinting, suggestive of ischaemic change. The latter group was characterized by mildly thickened folds with multiple submucosal nodules in the upper portion of the jejunum. In one patient from this group, jejunal biopsy demonstrated lymphangiectasia. Both groups were successfully treated by high-dose prednisolone. Follow-up radiography in the former group showed a complete improvement within 2-7 weeks, whereas radiographic abnormalities in the latter remained even after 2 months.
Lupus-associated enteropathy cases may be divisible into two types; an acute ischaemic enteritis type and a protein-losing enteropathy type, each presenting distinct radiographic features.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lupus protein-losing enteropathy (LUPLE) is a well reported but a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The main objectives of this study are to raise awareness of LUPLE that can be easily missed by internist, rheumatologist, gastroenterologist and nephrologist, and then to be considered in any patient with unexplained edema, ascites, and hypoalbuminemia. A systematic review was performed with 112 patients who met the eligibility criteria and were critically appraised. The LUPLE was ultimately diagnosed by either Tc-(99m) albumin scintography ((99m)Tc-HAS) or fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin clearance test. Clinical features of patients, at the time of LUPLE diagnosis, were as follows: age was 34 ± 14.2 years; the female to male ratio was 5.8:1; the mean time to development of LUPLE after diagnosis of SLE was 4.19 ± 4.7 years. There was a predominance of Asian (64.7%) while 29.5% were white or Hispanic patients. Eighty percent had peripheral edema, 48% had ascites, 38% had pleural effusion, and 21% had pericardial effusion. Forty-six percent had diarrhea, 27% had abdominal pain, 22% had nausea, and 19% had vomiting. Hypoalbuminemia was the most common characteristic laboratory finding (96%). A 24-h urine protein was less than 0.5 gm in (71%). Almost all patients (96%) had positive ANA with predominant speckled patterns (55%) and hypocomplementemia (79%). Colonoscopy showed mucosal thickening in 44% of patients, and the majority of patients (52%) revealed no abnormalities; on the other hand, intestinal histology either revealed mucosal edema, inflammatory cell infiltrate, lymphangiectasia, mucosal atrophy or vasculitis in 80% of patients. All patients were started on steroids. Thirty-four percent responded to steroids alone. Sixty-six percent were started with other immunosuppressive therapies, which include cyclophosphamide (46%), azathioprine (33%), and a combination of cyclophosphamide and azathioprine (7%). A few reported cases responded to either cyclosporine or etanercept. Prognosis was very good with steroids combined with immunosuppressive therapy. This is the first systematic review of LUPLE and should be considered as an etiology of unidentified edema, ascites, and hypoalbuminemia.Rheumatology International 02/2011; 31(8):995-1001. · 2.21 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are protean. Any part of the GI tract and the hepatobiliary system can be involved. Up to two-third of SLE patients develop GI symptoms at some stage of their illnesses. Clinical presentations of GI lupus are non-specific and can be difficult to differentiate from infective, thrombotic, therapy-related and non-SLE etiologies. Clinical acumen and appropriate endoscopic, biopsy and imaging procedures are essential for establishing the correct diagnosis. Acute abdominal pain in SLE patients can herald an intra-abdominal catastrophe and should be evaluated promptly. Surgical intervention should be instituted without delay if conservative management fails or when there is clinical or radiological suspicion of visceral perforation or intra-abdominal collections.Bailliè re s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Rheumatology 11/2005; 19(5):741-66. · 3.55 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lupus enteritis is a rare and poorly understood cause of abdominal pain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we report a series of 7 new patients with this rare condition who were referred to French tertiary care centers and perform a systematic literature review of SLE cases fulfilling the revised ACR criteria, with evidence for small bowel involvement, excluding those with infectious enteritis. We describe the characteristics of 143 previously published and 7 new cases. Clinical symptoms mostly included abdominal pain (97%), vomiting (42%), diarrhea (32%) and fever (20%). Laboratory features mostly reflected lupus activity: low complement levels (88%), anemia (52%), leukocytopenia or lymphocytopenia (40%) and thrombocytopenia (21%). Median CRP level was 2.0 mg/dL (range 0--8.2 mg/dL). Proteinuria was present in 47% of cases. Imaging studies revealed bowel wall edema (95%), ascites (78%), the characteristic target sign (71%), mesenteric abnormalities (71%) and bowel dilatation (24%). Only 9 patients (6%) had histologically confirmed vasculitis. All patients received corticosteroids as a first-line therapy, with additional immunosuppressants administered either from the initial episode or only in case of relapse (recurrence rate: 25%). Seven percent developed intestinal necrosis or perforation, yielding a mortality rate of 2.7%. Altogether, lupus enteritis is a poorly known cause of abdominal pain in SLE patients, with distinct clinical and therapeutic features. The disease may evolve to intestinal necrosis and perforation if untreated. Adding with this an excellent steroid responsiveness, timely diagnosis becomes primordial for the adequate management of this rare entity.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 05/2013; 8(1):67. · 4.32 Impact Factor