Double-contrast radiographic assessment of lupus-associated enteropathy.
ABSTRACT To describe the double-contrast radiographic features of lupus-associated enteropathy.
Six patients with systemic lupus erythematosus involving the small bowel were assessed by double-contrast radiography of the duodenum and small intestine, with reference to clinical manifestations and jejunoscopic findings.
Lupus-associated enteropathy could be categorized into two types: acute onset enteritis in four patients and protein-losing enteropathy with hyperlipidaemia in two patients. The former group presented with irregular thickening and spiculation in the folds of the multiple segments of the duodenum to the terminal ileum, and they were frequently accompanied by thumbprinting, suggestive of ischaemic change. The latter group was characterized by mildly thickened folds with multiple submucosal nodules in the upper portion of the jejunum. In one patient from this group, jejunal biopsy demonstrated lymphangiectasia. Both groups were successfully treated by high-dose prednisolone. Follow-up radiography in the former group showed a complete improvement within 2-7 weeks, whereas radiographic abnormalities in the latter remained even after 2 months.
Lupus-associated enteropathy cases may be divisible into two types; an acute ischaemic enteritis type and a protein-losing enteropathy type, each presenting distinct radiographic features.
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ABSTRACT: In this review of the gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 180 articles from the English literature, found using a medline search from January 1965 to December 2010, were examined. Vasculitis may cause ulcerations, bleeding, stricture formation, and perforation from ischemia and infarction. Otherwise, GI symptoms, occurring in about 50% of patients, are usually mild. Esophageal dysmotility may result in heartburn, regurgitation, and dysphagia. Occasionally, pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis may develop, sometimes associated with benign pneumoperitoneum. Patients are prone to salmonella bacteremia, presenting more commonly with fever and abdominal pain than with diarrhea. Intestinal pseudoobstruction usually is found with active lupus serology, preferentially involving small rather than the large bowel. Protein-losing enteropathy, characterized by diarrhea, edema, and hypoalbuminemia, can be the initial presentation of SLE. Malabsorption with a prevalence of 9.5% is occasionally associated with celiac disease. Pancreatitis, with an annual incidence of 0.4 to 1/1000, has an overall mortality of 27% that is decreased with corticosteroid therapy. Acute and chronic ascites may be due to lupus peritonitis or to associated diseases, such as pancreatitis, nephrotic syndrome, heart failure, or infections. Abnormal liver function tests may be due to steatosis from lupus or from corticosteroid therapy. Only about 10% of patients with autoimmune hepatitis have lupus. Up to 4.7% of patients with SLE have chronic active hepatitis correlating strongly with the presence of antibody to ribosomal P protein. SLE can involve the entire GI tract and the liver. Treatment with corticosteroids, cytotoxic agents, and/or immunosuppressants is often successful.Journal of clinical gastroenterology 03/2011; 45(5):436-41. DOI:10.1097/MCG.0b013e31820f81b8 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease associated with auto-antibody production and resulting widespread inflammation that has potential to affect and damage many organ systems. Gastrointestinal manifes-tations of SLE are well documented in the literature but the exact extent and frequency of their presence is likely grossly underestimated. Patients present with vague complaints such as abdominal pain and nausea with non-specific physical exam findings and inconclusive diagnostic tests and serologic analysis. Recent research has helped to better clarify these manifestations of SLE and has demonstrated distinct involvement of almost every portion of the GI tract. This article is based upon an exhaustive review of the literature from 1976 to present date and summarizes the major advances in the identification and differentiation of gastrointestinal incarnations related to systemic lupus erythematosus. The review also encompasses theories of etiology of the various manifestations, summarizes accepted and experimental treatment regi-mens, and highlights the differential diagnosis of each presented topic, including disorders of the oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver and gallbladder and beyond.The Open Autoimmunity Journal 04/2009; 1(1):10-26. DOI:10.2174/1876894600901010010
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ABSTRACT: Lupus enteritis is a rare and poorly understood cause of abdominal pain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we report a series of 7 new patients with this rare condition who were referred to French tertiary care centers and perform a systematic literature review of SLE cases fulfilling the revised ACR criteria, with evidence for small bowel involvement, excluding those with infectious enteritis. We describe the characteristics of 143 previously published and 7 new cases. Clinical symptoms mostly included abdominal pain (97%), vomiting (42%), diarrhea (32%) and fever (20%). Laboratory features mostly reflected lupus activity: low complement levels (88%), anemia (52%), leukocytopenia or lymphocytopenia (40%) and thrombocytopenia (21%). Median CRP level was 2.0 mg/dL (range 0--8.2 mg/dL). Proteinuria was present in 47% of cases. Imaging studies revealed bowel wall edema (95%), ascites (78%), the characteristic target sign (71%), mesenteric abnormalities (71%) and bowel dilatation (24%). Only 9 patients (6%) had histologically confirmed vasculitis. All patients received corticosteroids as a first-line therapy, with additional immunosuppressants administered either from the initial episode or only in case of relapse (recurrence rate: 25%). Seven percent developed intestinal necrosis or perforation, yielding a mortality rate of 2.7%. Altogether, lupus enteritis is a poorly known cause of abdominal pain in SLE patients, with distinct clinical and therapeutic features. The disease may evolve to intestinal necrosis and perforation if untreated. Adding with this an excellent steroid responsiveness, timely diagnosis becomes primordial for the adequate management of this rare entity.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 05/2013; 8(1):67. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-8-67 · 3.96 Impact Factor