Expression of Soluble VEGF Receptor 2 and Characterization of Its Binding by Surface Plasmon Resonance
ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell specific mitogen that induces angiogenesis in several pathological conditions. To block angiogenesis, soluble VEGF receptor can be used. In this study, we describe a method for high yield expression of soluble VEGF receptor 2 (sFlk-1) in a baculovirus expression system (30 mg purified sFlk-1 per L of insect cell supernatant). We also determined the binding constants for both human and mouse VEGF to the recombinant receptor by surface plasmon resonance. In this cell-free assay, under the given experimental conditions, the on-rate ka was 0.5-2.2 x 10(6) M-1s-1 and the off-rate kd was 2-4 x 10(-4) s-1 (KD = 2-6 x 10(-10) M). To our knowledge this is the first study to report on- and off-rates for the VEGF:sFlk-1 interaction. Heparin was not required for the binding of VEGF to sFlk-1 in this assay. The obtained values will serve as baseline parameters for the design of improved versions of recombinant soluble VEGF receptor.
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ABSTRACT: We generated a panel of eight rat IgG(2a) monoclonal antibodies with high affinity for mouse VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk-1), the main receptor that mediates the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A. The antibodies (termed RAFL, R at Anti Flk) bound to dividing endothelial cells more strongly than they did to nondividing cells. Most of the RAFL antibodies blocked [(125)I]VEGF(165) binding to VEGFR2. Three of eight antibodies localized to VEGFR2-positive tumor endothelium after intravenous injection into mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231 breast carcinomas, as judged by indirect immunohistochemistry. An average of 60% of vessels in the tumors was stained. The majority (50-80%) of vessels were also stained in a variety of other human and murine tumors growing in mice. The antibodies did not bind detectably to the vascular endothelium in normal heart, lung, liver, and brain cortex, whereas the vascular endothelium in kidney glomerulus and pancreatic islets was stained. Treatment of mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231 tumors with RAFL-1 antibody inhibited tumor growth by an average of 48% and reduced vascular density by 65%, compared to tumors in mice treated with control IgG. Vascular damage was not observed in normal organs, including kidneys and pancreas. These studies demonstrate that anti-VEGFR2 antibodies have potential for vascular targeting and imaging of tumors in vivo.Neoplasia 01/2014; 5(4):297-307. DOI:10.1016/S1476-5586(03)80023-4 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent cytokine involved in the induction of neovascularization. Secreted as a cysteine-linked dimer, it has two binding sites at opposite poles through which it may bind VEGF receptors (VEGFRs), receptor tyrosine kinases found on the surface of endothelial and other cells. The binding of a VEGF molecule to two VEGFR molecules induces transphosphorylation of the intracellular domains of the receptors, leading to signal transduction. The dominant mechanism of receptor dimerization is not clear: the receptors may be present in an inactive pre-dimerized form, VEGF binding first to one of the receptors, the second receptor then ideally located for dimerization; or VEGF may bind receptor monomers on the cell surface, which then diffuse and bind to available unligated receptor monomers to complete the activation. Both processes take place and one or other may dominate on different cell types. We demonstrate the impact of dimerization mechanism on the binding of VEGF to the cell surface and on the formation of active signaling receptor complexes. We describe two methods to determine which process dominates, based on binding and phosphorylation assays. The presence of two VEGF receptor populations, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, can result in receptor heterodimer formation. Our simulations predict that heterodimers will comprise 10-50% of the active, signaling VEGF receptor complexes, and that heterodimers will form at the expense of homodimers of VEGFR1 when VEGFR2 populations are larger. These results have significant implications for VEGF signal transduction and interpretation of experimental studies. These results may be applicable to other ligand-receptor pairs, in particular PDGF.Biophysical Chemistry 08/2007; 128(2-3):125-39. DOI:10.1016/j.bpc.2007.03.010 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important factors controlling angiogenesis. It is a homodimeric glycoprotein belonging to the family of cysteine-knot proteins. The biological activity is transduced via membrane-spanning receptors of the tyrosine kinase receptor family. Each biologically active VEGF has two receptor binding sites leading to receptor dimerization as first step following ligand binding. The ligand-binding site of the receptor is localized on extracellular Ig-like domains. The extracellular part of the receptor Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) was expressed as soluble protein and was used as receptor in an optical affinity sensor system (BIAcore). Suitable conditions allowed the determination of the association and dissociation rate constants as k(a)=4+/-1.2 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) and k(d)=3+/-0.8 x 10(-5) s(-1), respectively, leading to an affinity constant of K(D)=7.5+/-3 pM, which is within the range published already from other investigations and methods. Increasing receptor loadings of the sensor surface decreased the binding efficiency, as the ratio of bound VEGF-molecules to theoretically available binding sites increased from 1:1.5 to 1:2.6. Increasing the surface loading further, allowed the establishment of a quantitative assay with the analytical performance being influenced by the receptor loading and the contact time between sample and immobilized receptor, i.e. sample volume. This assay was used for VEGF determination during the cultivation of a recombinant Pichia pastoris strain.Biosensors & Bioelectronics 01/2003; 17(11-12):983-91. DOI:10.1016/S0956-5663(02)00090-8 · 6.45 Impact Factor