Response to conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B vaccine among infants in Niamey, Niger

Centre de Recherche sur les Meningites et les Schistosomoses, Niamey, Niger.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene (Impact Factor: 2.7). 11/1998; 59(5):837-42.
Source: PubMed


Despite near elimination of Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) meningitis from several industrialized countries following introduction of conjugate Hib vaccines into infant immunization schedules, Hib remains a major cause of meningitis and pneumonia in resource-poor countries. In Niger, Hib causes nearly 200 cases of meningitis per 100,000 children < one year of age, and > 40% of cases are fatal. We evaluated the immunogenicity of Hib polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PRP-T) administered in the same syringe as diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine among infants in Niger. Infants were randomized into group 1 (PRP-T at six, 10, and 14 weeks), group 2 (PRP-T at 10 and 14 weeks), or a control group (meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccine). By 14 weeks of age, all subjects in groups land 2 had > or = 0.15 microg/ml of anti-PRP antibody, and 82% versus 76% had > or = 1.0 microg/ml of antibody (P=not significant). By nine months of age the proportion of infants with > or = 0.15 and > or = 1.0 microg/ml was group I=97% and 76%; group 2=93% and 67%; controls=10% and 2.6%. Four weeks after the first, second, and third doses of PRP-T, infants in group 1 showed geometric mean titers (GMTs) of 0.19, 3.97, and 6.09 microg/ml while infants in group 2 had GMTs of 2.40 and 4.41 microg/ml four weeks after the delayed first and second doses. Both PRP-T groups had significantly higher GMTs at 18 weeks and nine months of age than infants in the control group. The Hib PRP-T vaccine was immunogenic in infants in Niger. The strong response after PRP-T was initiated one month after the first DTP vaccination may reflect carrier priming. Two dose schedules of PRP-T should be given serious consideration, particularly if their reduced cost permits vaccine introduction that would be otherwise unaffordable.

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    • "In a RCT in Niger, infants given DTP at 6 weeks of age followed by HibV-TT at 10 and 14 weeks had greater anti-PRP antibody levels than infants given a three dose schedule of concomitant HibV-TT with DTP at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. The GMC following the first dose of HibV-TT administered at 10 weeks of age was (2.40 ␮g/ml), more than double and significantly higher than the GMC of the 6 weeks dose of HibV-TT [35]. Although some of the differences reported may reflect improved immune response in infants vaccinated at an older age, the more pronounced immune response may also reflect carrier priming with TT four weeks prior to the administration of HibV-TT. "
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the immunogenicity of more economical regimens of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, a randomized trial of fractional doses of polyribosylribitol phosphate-tetanus toxoid (PRP-T) Hib vaccine was undertaken in the Dominican Republic. Six hundred children were assigned to one of six regimens with PRP-T vaccine: full-dose, half-dose, and one-third-dose of Hib vaccine given separately or combined with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP) vaccine at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. Regimens that elicited antibody levels > 1.0 microg/mL in >70% of children and < or = 0.15 microg/mL in > 90% of children were considered acceptable. At 1 month post Dose 3, all regimens met the criteria for acceptable response. Among those who received Hib as a separate injection, geometric mean concentrations of anti-PRP bodies (GMCs) at age 1 month post Dose 3 were 11.2, 11.9, and 16.3 in the full, half, and one-third dose groups, respectively. Among those who received Hib and DTP combined, the GMCs were 6.4, 5.2, and 5.7 in the full-, half-, and one-third-dose groups respectively.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 05/2000; 62(4):485-90. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunogenicity data obtained after primary series immunisations against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), using a vaccine prepared by conjugating the capsular polysaccharide of Hib to tetanus toxoid (ActHIB), were compiled from 146 study groups comprising 85 clinical trials or vaccination programs conducted between 1987 and 1999. ActHIB was administered as a monovalent lyophilised vaccine, injected either in association with another paediatric vaccine (at separate administration sites) or in combination (where the different vaccines are mixed together in the same syringe before injection). Review of these data reveals two trends. First, PRP-T vaccine, given either alone or in combination with DTwcP, resulted in a stronger anti-PRP serum antibody response than when PRP-T was combined with DTacP vaccine. Second, an accelerated (i.e. one-month interval) immunisation schedule tended to induce a poorer anti-PRP antibody response than did the more widely spaced, standard inoculation schedules. Although an in-depth analysis of these over 11000 study subjects on an individual basis with multivariate analysis or multifactorial statistical methods might eventually provide working hypotheses to fully understand these phenomenon, the various licensed, PRP-T-containing paediatric combination vaccines have proved to be clinically effective.
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