Stenkamp, D.L., Cunningham, L.L., Raymond, P.A. & Gonzalez-Fernandez, F. Novel expression pattern of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) in the adult and developing zebrafish retina and RPE. Mol. Vis. 4, 26
Interactions between the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are mediated by the interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM). The transport of retinoids across the IPM is mediated by interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP). To explore the possibility that IRBP is important during retinal development, we examined its spatiotemporal expression pattern in embryonic zebrafish.
IRBP mRNA expression was examined using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. IRBP was localized using antiserum against recombinant zebrafish IRBP. IRBP synthesis and secretion were studied by in vitro metabolic labeling of retinas and RPE-eyecups.
IRBP mRNA was first observed in the pineal at 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and in the ventral retina at 50 hpf. Immunoreactive IRBP was first observed at 72 hpf. Remarkably, IRBP was expressed not only by photoreceptors but also by the adult and embryonic RPE. In embryos, expression in both retina and RPE began in a ventronasal patch and spread to involve the entire eye. In general, early IRBP expression was dominated by photoreceptors, but then RPE expression spread beyond the limit of photoreceptor expression. Double in situ hybridizations suggests that cones express IRBP mRNA before they express a specific opsin, while rods may express rod opsin prior to IRBP.
The temporal and spatial patterns of IRBP expression by the RPE and retina are consistent with a role in retinal development and suggest coordination of RPE and photoreceptor differentiation.
"The irbp gene is expressed early during rodent retinal development and is upregulated before the expression of opsins . The temporal and spatial expression patterns of the zfirbp gene in zebrafish are consistent with a role in retinal development and suggest coordination of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor differentiation . There has been so far no evidence that temperature can play a role in the regulation of expression of this gene. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The circadian clock enables animals to adapt their physiology and behaviour in anticipation of the day-night cycle. Light and temperature represent two key environmental timing cues (zeitgebers) able to reset this mechanism and so maintain its synchronization with the environmental cycle. One key challenge is to unravel how the regulation of the clock by zeitgebers matures during early development. The zebrafish is an ideal model for studying circadian clock ontogeny since the process of development occurs ex utero in an optically transparent chorion and many tools are available for genetic analysis. However, the role played by temperature in regulating the clock during zebrafish development is poorly understood. Here, we have established a clock-regulated luciferase reporter transgenic zebrafish line (Tg (-3.1) per1b::luc) to study the effects of temperature on clock entrainment. We reveal that under complete darkness, from an early developmental stage onwards (48 to 72 hpf), exposure to temperature cycles is a prerequisite for the establishment of self-sustaining rhythms of zfper1b, zfaanat2, and zfirbp expression and also for circadian cell cycle rhythms. Furthermore, we show that following the 5-9 somite stage, the expression of zfper1b is regulated by acute temperature shifts.
"bernacchii sequences available, only four failed to align to a unigene sequence. Two of these sequences form interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), a protein that accumulates in the subretinal space and facilitates exchanges during the “visual cycle” . Due to the high degree of specificity to the visual process, it is unlikely that this product would be found in the liver, gill or brain tissues that were sequenced in this effort. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The notothenioids comprise a diverse group of fishes that rapidly radiated after isolation by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current approximately 14--25 million years ago. Given that evolutionary adaptation has led to finely tuned traits with narrow physiological limits in these organisms, this system provides a unique opportunity to examine physiological trade-offs and limits of adaptive responses to environmental perturbation. As such, notothenioids have a rich history with respect to studies attempting to understand the vulnerability of polar ecosystems to the negative impacts associated with global climate change. Unfortunately, despite being a model system for understanding physiological adaptations to extreme environments, we still lack fundamental molecular tools for much of the Nototheniidae family.
Specimens of the emerald notothen, Trematomus bernacchii, were acclimated for 28 days in flow-through seawater tanks maintained near ambient seawater temperatures (-1.5[degree sign]C) or at +4[degree sign]C. Following acclimation, tissue specific cDNA libraries for liver, gill and brain were created by pooling RNA from n = 5 individuals per temperature treatment. The tissue specific libraries were bar-coded and used for 454 pyrosequencing, which yielded over 700 thousand sequencing reads. A de novo assembly and annotation of these reads produced a functional transcriptome library of T. bernacchii containing 30,107 unigenes, 13,003 of which possessed significant homology to a known protein product. Digital gene expression analysis of these extremely cold adapted fish reinforced the loss of an inducible heat shock response and allowed the preliminary exploration into other elements of the cellular stress response.
Preliminary exploration of the transcriptome of T. bernacchii under elevated temperatures enabled a semi-quantitative comparison to prior studies aimed at characterizing the thermal response of this endemic fish whose size, abundance and distribution has established it as a pivotal species in polar research spanning several decades.The comparison of these findings to previous studies demonstrates the efficacy of transcriptomics and digital gene expression analysis as tools in future studies of polar organisms and has greatly increased the available genomic resources for the suborder Notothenioidei, particularly in the Trematominae subfamily.
"In the chicken pineal gland, the mRNA encoding the photopigment Pinopsin shows a rhythm that is dependent upon activation by light . In zebrafish, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (irbp) mRNA expression is circadian-regulated, while and IRBP protein levels are constant [37,63]. In the case of IRBP, it is proposed that the higher expression of mRNA during the day is necessary to maintain the constant levels of protein, as protein turnover is much higher during the day than during the night [37,63]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc) mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is the major source of the circadian hormone melatonin, which regulates rhythms such as daily rest/activity cycles. Mammalian pineal rhythms are controlled almost exclusively by the SCN. In zebrafish and many other lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous clock that is responsible in part for cyclic melatonin biosynthesis and gene expression.
We find that pineal rhythms are present in cyc mutants despite the absence of an SCN. The arginine vasopressin-like protein (Avpl, formerly called Vasotocin) is a peptide hormone expressed in and around the SCN. We find avpl mRNA is absent in cyc mutants, supporting previous work suggesting the SCN is missing. In contrast, expression of the putative circadian clock genes, cryptochrome 1b (cry1b) and cryptochrome 3 (cry3), in the brain of the developing fish is unaltered. Expression of two pineal rhythmic genes, exo-rhodopsin (exorh) and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (aanat2), involved in photoreception and melatonin synthesis, respectively, is also similar between cyc embryos and their wildtype (WT) siblings. The timing of the peaks and troughs of expression are the same, although the amplitude of expression is slightly decreased in the mutants. Cyclic gene expression persists for two days in cyc embryos transferred to constant light or constant dark, suggesting a circadian clock is driving the rhythms. However, the amplitude of rhythms in cyc mutants kept in constant conditions decreased more quickly than in their WT siblings.
Our data suggests that circadian rhythms can be initiated and maintained in the absence of SCN and other tissues in the ventral brain. However, the SCN may have a role in regulating the amplitude of rhythms when environmental cues are absent. This provides some of the first evidence that the SCN of teleosts is not essential for establishing circadian rhythms during development. Several SCN-independent circadian rhythms have also been found in mammalian species. Thus, zebrafish may serve as a model system for understanding how vertebrate embryos coordinate rhythms that are controlled by different circadian clocks.
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