Proteins of the Hsp70 family of ATPases, such as BiP, function together with J proteins to bind polypeptides in numerous cellular processes. Using a solid phase binding assay, we demonstrate that a conserved segment of the J proteins, the J domain, catalytically activates BiP molecules to bind peptides in its immediate vicinity. The J domain interacts with the ATP form of BiP and stimulates hydrolysis resulting in the rapid trapping of peptides, which are then only slowly released upon nucleotide exchange. Activation by the J domain allows BiP to trap peptides or proteins that it would not bind on its own. These results explain why BiP and probably all other Hsp70s can interact with a wide range of substrates and suggest that the J partner primarily determines the substrate specificity of Hsp70s.
"Other stabilizing mechanisms cannot be excluded. For instance, even molecular chaperones, including GroEL, hsp70, TF, calnexin, and calrecticulin, were reported to recognize their substrates mainly through the non-hydrophobic interactions, such as electrostatic interactions and glycan-binding [79–82]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the processes of protein synthesis and folding, newly synthesized polypeptides are tightly connected to the macromolecules, such as ribosomes, lipid bilayers, or cotranslationally folded domains in multidomain proteins, representing a hallmark of de novo protein folding environments in vivo. Such linkage effects on the aggregation of endogenous polypeptides have been largely neglected, although all these macromolecules have been known to effectively and robustly solubilize their linked heterologous proteins in fusion or display technology. Thus, their roles in the aggregation of linked endogenous polypeptides need to be elucidated and incorporated into the mechanisms of de novo protein folding in vivo. In the classic hydrophobic interaction-based stabilizing mechanism underlying the molecular chaperone-assisted protein folding, it has been assumed that the macromolecules connected through a simple linkage without hydrophobic interactions and conformational changes would make no effect on the aggregation of their linked polypeptide chains. However, an increasing line of evidence indicates that the intrinsic properties of soluble macromolecules, especially their surface charges and excluded volume, could be important and universal factors for stabilizing their linked polypeptides against aggregation. Taken together, these macromolecules could act as folding helpers by keeping their linked nascent chains in a folding-competent state. The folding assistance provided by these macromolecules in the linkage context would give new insights into de novo protein folding inside the cell.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(8):10368-86. DOI:10.3390/ijms130810368 · 2.86 Impact Factor
"Most strikingly, PD variants showed enhanced interaction with J-proteins, which are involved in the folding function (hTid-1S and hTid-1L) as well as import reaction (DnaJC19) as indicated by their ability to get the ATPase activity stimulated through J-domain. In general, J-class protein family members are known to interact transiently with the ATPase domain of Hsp70s in ATP-bound conformation via their conserved J-domain (51). In vivo, the folding cycle of Hsp70 is initiated in ATP-bound conformation (21). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent progressive neurological disorder commonly associated with impaired mitochondrial function in dopaminergic neurons. Although familial PD is multifactorial in nature, a recent genetic screen involving PD patients identified two mitochondrial Hsp70 variants (P509S and R126W) that are suggested in PD pathogenesis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying how mtHsp70 PD variants are centrally involved in PD progression is totally elusive. In this article, we provide mechanistic insights into the mitochondrial dysfunction associated with human mtHsp70 PD variants. Biochemically, the R126W variant showed severely compromised protein stability and was found highly susceptible to aggregation at physiological conditions. Strikingly, on the other hand, the P509S variant exhibits significantly enhanced interaction with J-protein cochaperones involved in folding and import machinery, thus altering the overall regulation of chaperone-mediated folding cycle and protein homeostasis. To assess the impact of mtHsp70 PD mutations at the cellular level, we developed yeast as a model system by making analogous mutations in Ssc1 ortholog. Interestingly, PD mutations in yeast (R103W and P486S) exhibit multiple in vivo phenotypes, which are associated with 'mitochondrial dysfunction', including compromised growth, impairment in protein translocation, reduced functional mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial DNA loss, respiratory incompetency and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. In addition to that, R103W protein is prone to aggregate in vivo due to reduced stability, whereas P486S showed enhanced interaction with J-proteins, thus remarkably recapitulating the cellular defects that are observed in human PD variants. Taken together, our findings provide evidence in favor of direct involvement of mtHsp70 as a susceptibility factor in PD.
Human Molecular Genetics 04/2012; 21(15):3317-32. DOI:10.1093/hmg/dds162 · 6.39 Impact Factor
"We have assumed that a single BiP is activated per Sec63 molecule located at the ER membrane. In vitro studies have indicated that the BiP-Sec63 interaction occurs transiently, and suggest that one Sec63 molecule could potentially activate at least ten BiP molecules . On average, E. coli experiments have determined that incoming proteins present a new Hsp70 binding site every 25 to 35 amino acids  which is consistent with S. cerevisiae literature that estimates a minimum of six to seven molecules of BiP bound to the endogeneous protein, ppαF . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In eukaryotes, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves as the first membrane-enclosed organelle in the secretory pathway, with functions including protein folding, maturation and transport. Molecular chaperones, of the Hsp70 family of proteins, participate in assisting these processes and are essential to cellular function and survival. BiP is a resident Hsp70 chaperone in the ER of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study the authors have created a partial differential equation model to examine how BiP interacts with the membrane-bound co-chaperone Sec63 in translocation, a process in which BiP assists in guiding a nascent protein into the ER lumen. It has been found that when Sec63 participates in translocation through localisation at the membrane, the spatial distribution of BiP is inhomogeneous, with more BiP at the surface. When translocation is inhibited through a disabling of Sec63's membrane tether, the concentration of BiP throughout the ER becomes homogeneous. The computational simulations suggest that Sec63's localisation and the resulting binding to BiP near the membrane surface of the ER enable a heterogeneous distribution of BiP within the ER, and may facilitate BiP's role in translocation. [Includes supplementary material].
IET Systems Biology 04/2012; 6(2):54-63. DOI:10.1049/iet-syb.2011.0006 · 1.06 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.