Slow allotypic variants of the NAT2 gene and susceptibility to early-onset Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT To determine the frequency and the linkage distribution of seven mutations at the polymorphic gene coding for the arylamine N-acetyl transferase (NAT2; EC 220.127.116.11) in 121 unrelated patients with sporadic PD and in 121 unrelated healthy volunteers.
The study was performed with mutation-specific PCR using genomic DNA obtained from blood of the probands.
Comparison of the NAT2 genotypes of the overall PD patients and control subjects did not indicate statistically significant differences. However, patients with early-onset PD (onset before the age of 50 years, n=37) showed a higher frequency of slow-acetylation genotypes (78.4% patients) compared with both healthy control subjects (55.4%) and with late-onset (onset after 51 years of age, n=84) PD patients (54.8%). Such a difference was statistically significant (p < 0.015) and was the result of a homogeneous increase in the frequency of slow-acetylation alleles. All subgroups analyzed in the study were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for mutations at the NAT2 gene.
Slow-acetylation-mutated alleles may be considered low-penetrance genes in early-onset PD pathogenesis, with a relative risk ratio for individuals with slow-acetylation genotype of 2.92 (95% CI, 1.26 to 6.78). This study provides evidence for the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of sporadic PD.
European Psychiatry 08/2006; 21(5):333-7. · 2.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The two expressed genes coding for N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, NAT1 and NAT2, are located on chromosome 8 at 8p21.3-23.1 and are polymorphic. Both enzymes are capable of N-acetylation, O-acetylation, and N,O-acetylation and are implicated in the activation and detoxification of known carcinogens. Single base-pair substitutions in NAT2 tend to occur in combination with other substitutions within the gene. As yet, less work has been done to characterize NAT1 allelic variants. Various methods for the detection of the reported polymorphisms exist. It is important to select a method that is appropriate to the population being studied. The functional significance of many NAT allelic variants has not been determined. Geographic and ethnic variation in the frequency of NAT2 genotypes associated with fast or intermediate acetylation has been observed. Insufficient data for NAT1 genotypes are available to reveal a clear geographic pattern. No consistent association has been found between acetylator phenotype or genotype and colorectal cancer. The lack of consistency can in part be accounted for by methodological factors, including limited statistical power. Possible interactions between the NAT genes and either environmental exposures or other polymorphic genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes have been investigated in only a minority of these studies, and these studies have lacked statistical power to detect interactions.American Journal of Epidemiology 06/2000; 151(9):846-61. · 5.22 Impact Factor