Equilibrium binding studies of non-claret disjunctional protein (Ncd) reveal cooperative interactions between the motor domains.
ABSTRACT Non-claret disjunctional protein (Ncd) is a minus end-directed microtubule motor required for normal spindle assembly and integrity during Drosophila oogenesis. We have pursued equilibrium binding experiments to examine the affinity of Ncd for microtubules in the presence of the ATP nonhydrolyzable analog 5'-adenylyl-beta, gamma-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), ADP, or ADP + Pi using both dimeric (MC1) and monomeric (MC6) Ncd constructs expressed in Escherichia coli. Both MC1 and MC6 sediment with microtubules in the absence of added nucleotide as well as in the presence of either ADP or AMP-PNP. Yet, in the presence of ADP + Pi, there is a decrease in the affinity of both MC1 and MC6 for microtubules. The data for dimeric MC1 show that release of the dimer to the supernatant is sigmoidal with the apparent Kd(Pi) for the two phosphate sites at 23.3 and 1.9 mM, respectively. The results indicate that binding at the first phosphate site enhances binding at the second site, thus cooperatively stimulating release. Stopped-flow kinetics indicate that MgATP promotes dissociation of the Mt.MC1 complex at 14 s-1, yet AMP-PNP has no effect on the Mt.MC1 complex. These results are consistent with a model for the ATPase cycle in which ATP hydrolysis occurs on the microtubule followed by detachment as the Ncd.ADP.Pi intermediate.
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ABSTRACT: Kar3, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kinesin-14, is essential for karyogamy and meiosis I but also has specific functions during vegetative growth. For its various roles, Kar3 forms a heterodimer with either Cik1 or Vik1, both of which are noncatalytic polypeptides. Here, we present the first biochemical characterization of Kar3Cik1, the kinesin motor that is essential for karyogamy. Kar3Cik1 depolymerizes microtubules from the plus end and promotes robust minus-end-directed microtubule gliding. Immunolocalization studies show that Kar3Cik1 binds preferentially to one end of the microtubule, whereas the Kar3 motor domain, in the absence of Cik1, exhibits significantly higher microtubule lattice binding. Kar3Cik1-promoted microtubule depolymerization requires ATP turnover, and the kinetics fit a single exponential function. The disassembly mechanism is not microtubule catastrophe like that induced by the MCAK Kinesin-13s. Soluble tubulin does not activate the ATPase activity of Kar3Cik1, and there is no evidence of Kar3Cik1(.)tubulin complex formation as observed for MCAK. These results reveal a novel mechanism to regulate microtubule depolymerization. We propose that Cik1 targets Kar3 to the microtubule plus end. Kar3Cik1 then uses its minus-end-directed force to depolymerize microtubules from the plus end, with each tubulin-subunit release event tightly coupled to one ATP turnover.Current Biology 09/2005; 15(15):1420-7. · 9.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Kinesins form a superfamily of molecular motors involved in cell division and intracellular transport. Twenty kinesins have been found in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome, and four of these belong to the kinesin-14 subfamily, i.e., kinesins with C-terminal motor domains. Three of these kinesin-14s, KLP-15, KLP-16, and KLP-17, form a distinct subgroup in which KLP-15 and KLP-16 are more than 90% identical and appear to be related by a relatively recent gene duplication. They are essential for meiotic spindle organization and chromosome segregation, and are mostly expressed in the germline. With 587 amino acids each, they are among the smallest kinesins known. Using bacterially expressed KLP-15 constructs with different length extensions preceding the motor domain, we have determined in vitro the following characteristic properties: ATPase activity, microtubule binding, oligomeric state, microtubule gliding activity, and direction of movement. The constructs exhibit a monomer-dimer equilibrium that depends on the length of the predicted alpha-helical coiled-coil region preceding the motor domain. The longest construct with the complete coiled-coil domain is a stable dimer, and the shortest construct with only seven amino acids preceding the motor domain is a monomer. In microtubule gliding assays, the monomer is immobile whereas the fully dimeric KLP-15 construct supports gliding at 2.3 microm/min and moves toward microtubule minus ends, like other members of the kinesin-14 subfamily studied to date.Biochemistry 06/2005; 44(17):6526-36. · 3.42 Impact Factor