Psychotic symptoms and violent behaviors: probing the components of "threat/control-override" symptoms
ABSTRACT Evidence for an association between mental illness and violence has grown in recent years, leading many to ask why such an association exists. One hypothesis links elevated rates of violence among people with mental illness to a small set of psychotic symptoms--so called threat/control-override (TCO) symptoms. Several studies have supported this hypothesis, but none has examined which of the components, threat or control-override--if either--predominates in explaining violence. To explore this issue we used data from a two-stage epidemiological study (n = 2741) conducted in Israel. Data on TCO symptoms were collected using two methods--fixed-format self-report questions from the first stage and psychiatrists' ratings based on interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) from the second. Results show that both a measure of threat and a measure of control-override are independently associated with violent behaviors. Results also show that neither method--neither fixed-format questions nor psychiatrist rating--predominates in explaining violence. In sum, these results indicate that both the threat and the control-override components of the TCO concept are useful in predicting violent behaviors and that a better measurement of the TCO concept is achieved using a multimethod approach.
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ABSTRACT: Forensic evaluation differs from clinical evaluation in several aspects, most importantly that it has legal goals to serve other parties not the health care needs of the individual. However, violence prediction is a difficult task always expected from a psychiatrist whether during forensic or as usual clinical evaluation. Assessing danger and prediction of future violence aim at prevention of such behaviour. Risk factors for violence in people with mental disorder might be different from other groups. Established risk factors for violence in people with psychosis are criminal history, comorbid substance misuse, active psychotic symptoms, non compliance with medication and comorbid personality disorder, particularly antisocial personality disorder.01/2013; Volume 20(1):1-5. DOI:10.1097/01.XME.0000423000.04392.04
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ABSTRACT: Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment.