Age is not a prognostic variable with autotransplants for multiple myeloma.
ABSTRACT Multiple myeloma (MM) typically afflicts elderly patients with a median age of 65 years. However, while recently shown to provide superior outcome to standard treatment, high-dose therapy (HDT) has usually been limited to patients up to 65 years. Among 550 patients with MM and a minimum follow-up of 18 months, 49 aged >/=65 years were identified (median age, 67; range, 65 to 76 years). Their outcome was compared with 49 younger pair mates (median, 52; range, 37 to 64 years) selected among the remaining 501 younger patients (<65 years) matched for five previously recognized critical prognostic factors (cytogenetics, beta2-microglobulin, C-reactive protein, albumin, creatinine). Nearly one half had been treated for more than 1 year with standard therapy and about one third had refractory MM. All patients received high-dose melphalan-based therapy; 76% of the younger and 65% of the older group completed a second transplant (P =.3). Sufficient peripheral blood stem cells to support two HDT cycles (CD34 > 5 x 10(6)/kg) were available in 83% of younger and 73% of older patients (P =.2). After HDT, hematopoietic recovery to critical levels of granulocytes (>500/microL) and of platelets (>50,000/microL) proceeded at comparable rates among younger and older subjects with both first and second HDT. The frequency of extramedullary toxicities was comparable. Treatment-related mortality with the first HDT cycle was 2% in younger and 8% among older subjects, whereas no mortality was encountered with the second transplant procedure. Comparing younger/older subjects, median durations of event-free and overall survival were 2.8/1.5 years (P =.2) and 4.8/3.3 years (P =.4). Multivariate analysis showed pretransplant cytogenetics and beta2-microglobulin levels as critical prognostic features for both event-free and overall survival, whereas age was insignificant for both endpoints (P =.2/.8). Thus, age is not a biologically adverse parameter for patients with MM receiving high-dose melphalan-based therapy with peripheral blood stem cell support and, hence, should not constitute an exclusion criterion for participation in what appears to be superior therapy for symptomatic MM.
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ABSTRACT: High-dose melphalan (200 mg/m(2)) as conditioning regimen followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) rescue has been established as a standard treatment for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) younger than 65 years of age. However, the role of ASCT in elderly patients older than 65 years remains controversial in the era of novel agents such as thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide. The efficacy and feasibility of ASCT have been shown in elderly patients by reducing the dose of melphalan to 100-140 mg/m(2). Although the clinical benefit of reduced-intensity ASCT in elderly patients has not been clearly established in comparison with that of novel agent-based induction therapy, recent studies have demonstrated that sequential strategies of novel agent-based induction therapy and reduced-intensity ASCT followed by consolidation/maintenance with novel agents translate into better outcome in the management of elderly patients. Thus, ASCT could also be a mainstay in the initial treatment of elderly MM patients, and its indication should be evaluated based on performance status and the presence of complications and/or comorbidities of each elderly patient with MM.BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:394792.
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ABSTRACT: High-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is considered the standard of care for multiple myeloma (MM) patients <65 years. Safety and outcome of ASCT for patients >65 years is currently uncertain, especially since the introduction of novel agents for induction and maintenance therapy. Furthermore, there are no conclusive data available on risk assessment in elderly patients treated with HDT. We retrospectively analyzed 202 patients ≥60 years with newly diagnosed MM who underwent ASCT at our institution. Patients were stratified by age into three groups (60-64, 65-69 and 70-75 years). For safety assessment, we compared data about hospitalization, hematopoetic reconstitution and early mortality. Remission before and after ASCT was analyzed according to age and application of novel agents. Event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed to identify impact of age, remission before/after ASCT and maintenance therapy as well as ISS score and cytogenetic aberrations on outcome in elderly patients. The assessment of safety, remission before/after ASCT as well as EFS and OS showed no significant differences between the three groups (median EFS: 60-64 years: 27 months; 65-69 years: 23 months; 70-75 years: 23 months; median OS: not reached). Patients receiving novel agents as part of induction therapy achieved significantly higher nCR + CR rates than patients treated without novel agents. In Cox regression analysis, ISS and cytogenetics as well as remission after ASCT had the highest prognostic impact on EFS and OS. Maintenance therapy was associated with longer EFS in uni- and multivariate analyses. ASCT is feasible for selected patients >65 and >70 years without increased mortality. Age at transplantation has no prognostic significance on outcome after ASCT. Novel agents during induction therapy and maintenance therapy improves outcome of older patients eligible for ASCT. ISS and cytogenetic analysis should be carried out routinely for risk assessment.Annals of Oncology 01/2014; 25(1):189-95. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An estimated 22,350 patients had multiple myeloma diagnosed in 2013, representing 1.3% of all new cancers; 10,710 deaths are projected, representing 1.8% of cancer deaths. Approximately 0.7% of US men and women will have a myeloma diagnosis in their lifetime, and with advances in therapy, 77,600 US patients are living with myeloma. The 5-year survival rate was 25.6% in 1989 and was 44.9% in 2005. The median age at diagnosis is 69 years, with 62.4% of patients aged 65 or older at diagnosis. Median age at death is 75 years. The rate of new myeloma cases has been rising 0.7% per year during the past decade. The most common indication for autologous stem cell transplantation in the United States is multiple myeloma, and this paper is designed to provide the specifics of organizing a transplant program for multiple myeloma. We review the data justifying use of stem cell transplantation as initial management in myeloma patients. We provide selection criteria that minimize the risks of transplantation. Specific guidelines on mobilization and supportive care through the transplant course, as done at Mayo Clinic, are given. A review of the data on tandem vs sequential autologous transplants is provided.Blood 06/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor