"It has made it possible to transplant dogs, which are notorious for the violence of their rejection responses, even with prednisone and cyclosporine A treatment (Lirtzman et al., 1996). Leflunomide has also shown great promise in the treatment of immune diseases in dogs (Gregory et al., 1998). One of the metabolites of Leflunomide, trifluromethylaniline (TFMA), is highly gastroenterotoxic for dogs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The following review is based on notes used in the teaching of clinical immunology to veterinary students. Immune diseases of the dog are placed into six different categories: (1) type I or allergic conditions; (2) type II or auto- and allo-antibody diseases; (3) type III or immune complex disorders; (4) type IV or cell-mediated immune diseases; (5) type V conditions or gammopathies; and (6) type VI or immunodeficiency disorders. Separate discussions of transplantation immunology and the use of drugs to regulate unwanted immune responses are also included.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate prognostic factors, survival, and treatment protocols for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) in dogs.
151 dogs with IMHA not associated with underlying infectious or neoplastic disease.
lnformation recorded from review of medical records included signalment at the time of initial evaluation; vaccination history; 30-, 60-, and 365-day follow-up outcomes; laboratory data; results of imaging studies; and necropsy findings. Dogs were grouped according to the presence of spherocytes, autoagglutination, a regenerative erythrocyte response, and treatments received (azathioprine, azathioprine plus ultralow-dose aspirin, azathioprine plus mixed-molecular-weight heparin [mHEP], or azathioprine plus ultralow-dose aspirin plus mHEP) for comparisons. All dogs received glucocorticoids.
Cocker Spaniels, Miniature Schnauzers, neutered dogs, and female dogs were overrepresented. Alterations in certain clinicopathologic variables were associated with increased mortality rate. Rates of survival following treatment with azathioprine, azathioprine plus ultralow-dose aspirin, azathioprine plus mHEP, and azathioprine plus ultralow-dose aspirin plus mHEP were 74%, 88%, 23%, and 70%, respectively, at hospital discharge; 57%, 82%, 17%, and 67%, respectively, at 30 days; and 45%, 69%, 17%, and 64%, respectively, at 1 year. In comparison, mean survival rates at discharge and at 30 days and 1 year after evaluation collated from 7 published reviews of canine IMHA were 57%, 58%, and 34%, respectively.
Treatment with a combination of glucocorticoids, azathioprine, and ultralow-dose aspirin significantly improved short- and long-term survival in dogs with IMHA.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 07/2005; 226(11):1869-80. DOI:10.2460/javma.2005.226.1869 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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