Cardiovascular risk factors for early carotid atherosclerosis in the general population: the Edinburgh Artery Study.
ABSTRACT Recent attempts to identify cardiovascular risk factors affecting early-stage carotid atherosclerosis, measured by ultrasonographically assessed intima-media thickness, have been inconclusive.
To study the relationship between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness.
Ultrasonic evaluation of the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery was included in the 5-year follow-up examination of participants of the Edinburgh Artery Study. We had valid readings of intima-media thickness for 1106 men and women aged 60-80 years. Information on a range of cardiovascular risk factors had been collected during the baseline examination.
For men, in addition to age, lifetime smoking (measured in terms of pack years) was the only cardiovascular risk factor associated with increased intima-media thickness (P< or = 0.01) in the univariate analysis. Both systolic blood pressure (P < or = 0.001) and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL: total cholesterol ratio (P < or = 0.01) were correlated with intima-media thickness for women. When all the variables had been included in a multivariate analysis, pack years of smoking and the HDL:total cholesterol ratio were associated with early atherosclerotic development in men. In an equivalent analysis for women, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure and the HDL:total cholesterol ratio were associated with intima-media thickness.
These data suggest that risk factors affecting intima-media thickness differ for men and women. Further sex-specific analyses of prospective population studies are required in order to clarify the role of 'traditional' cardiovascular risk factors in the early stages of carotid atherosclerosis.
- SourceAvailable from: Kaare Harald Bønaa[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ultrasound measurement of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is regarded as a valid index of atherosclerosis. Determinants of IMT in cross-sectional studies have been established, but the long-term relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis has not been investigated thoroughly. We included in the study 3128 middle-aged men and women in Tromsø, Norway, who in 1980 attended the baseline examination with measurements of cardiovascular risk factors and who underwent carotid ultrasonography after 15 years of follow-up. Age, blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and body mass index were independent long-term predictors of IMT in both men and women. Triglyceride levels were associated with an increase in IMT in women only, while physical activity and smoking were predictors of IMT in men only. However, smoking was associated with increased risk of having atherosclerotic plaque in both men and women. There were no differences in the strength of risk factor effects on IMT in the common carotid artery and the carotid bifurcation. The present study indicates that established cardiovascular risk factors are independent predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis measured after 15 years of follow-up. However, there may be significant sex differences in the relationship between triglycerides, smoking, and physical activity and the risk of atherosclerosis.Stroke 04/2000; 31(3):574-81. · 6.16 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Cyclic Delay Diversity for Single Carrier-Cyclic Prefix Systems[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the application of cyclic delay diversity (CDD) to block-based single carrier cyclic prefix (SC-CP) systems. It is shown that diversity advantage is achieved even without additional coding due to the inherent cross-tone pre-coding present in SC-CP. We also present a CDD SC-CP transmission system for correlated channels. By using beamforming techniques, virtual uncorrelated channels are created for CDD transmissions. Simulations results show that the proposed schemes provide diversity gain. Furthermore, when beamforming is used together with CDD, array gain is also observedSignals, Systems and Computers, 2005. Conference Record of the Thirty-Ninth Asilomar Conference on; 01/2005
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ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is considered primarily as a progressive small vessel disease, with ischaemic degenerative lesions involving the kidneys, brain and heart. Macrovascular involvement in male patients includes an accelerated wall hypertrophy of the radial artery and a thickening of the intima-media of the common carotid artery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and severity of carotid artery atherosclerosis in hemizygous and heterozygous patients with Fabry disease, compared with a matched control population. The common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) of 53 patients with Fabry disease (24 men, 29 women) was measured by high-definition ultrasonography, and the presence or absence of atherosclerotic plaques reported. Results were compared with those of 120 age-matched healthy individuals (83 men, 37 women). The common carotid artery IMT was increased to the same extent in male and female patients with Fabry disease (706+/-211 microm and 749+/-395 microm, respectively) compared with that of the control population (614+/-113 microm). In the Fabry population, IMT did not correlate with either systolic blood pressure or with renal function (plasma creatinine). In the control population, only systolic blood pressure was positively and significantly correlated with IMT. Atherosclerotic plaques in the common carotid artery were not observed in any patient with Fabry disease, whereas 34% of the control population had carotid artery plaques, as evidenced by focal non-homogeneous intima-media thickening greater than 1.2 mm. This study presents evidence of a major increase in common carotid artery IMT, both in hemizygous and heterozygous patients with Fabry disease, in the absence of focal atherosclerotic plaques. These results suggest that the conduit arteries may be protected from atherosclerosis in Fabry disease.Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992). Supplement 05/2006; 95(451):63-8.