Endoglin is an accessory protein that interacts with the signaling receptor complex of multiple members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily.
ABSTRACT Endoglin (CD105) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that binds transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and -beta3, and coprecipitates with the Ser/Thr kinase signaling receptor complex by affinity labeling of endothelial and leukemic cells. The present study shows that in addition to TGF-beta1 and -beta3, endoglin interacts with activin-A, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7, and BMP-2 but requires coexpression of the respective ligand binding kinase receptor for this association. Endoglin cannot bind ligands on its own and does not alter binding to the kinase receptors. It binds TGF-beta1 and -beta3 by associating with the TGF-beta type II receptor and interacts with activin-A and BMP-7 via activin type II receptors, ActRII and ActRIIB, regardless of which type I receptor partner is coexpressed. However, endoglin binds BMP-2 by interacting with the ligand binding type I receptors, ALK3 and ALK6. The formation of heteromeric signaling complexes was not altered by the presence of endoglin, although it was coprecipitated with these complexes. Endoglin did not interact with BMP-7 through complexes containing the BMP type II receptor, demonstrating specificity of its action. Our data suggest that endoglin is an accessory protein of multiple kinase receptor complexes of the TGF-beta superfamily.
- SourceAvailable from: Yuko Mori-Akiyama[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The transcription factor SOX9 plays an essential role in determining the fate of several cell types and is a master factor in regulation of chondrocyte development. Our aim was to determine which genes in the genome of chondrocytes are either directly or indirectly controlled by SOX9. We used RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression levels were affected by SOX9 and used SOX9 ChIP-Seq to identify those genes that harbor SOX9-interaction sites. For RNA-Seq, the RNA expression profile of primary Sox9flox/flox mouse chondrocytes infected with Ad-CMV-Cre was compared with that of the same cells infected with a control adenovirus. Analysis of RNA-Seq data indicated that, when the levels of Sox9 mRNA were decreased more than 8-fold by infection with Ad-CMV-Cre, 196 genes showed a decrease in expression of at least 4-fold. These included many cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and a number of genes for ECM modification enzymes (transferases), membrane receptors, transporters, and others. In ChIP-Seq, 75% of the SOX9-interaction sites had a canonical inverted repeat motif within 100 bp of the top of the peak. SOX9-interaction sites were found in 55% of the genes whose expression was decreased more than 8-fold in SOX9-depleted cells and in somewhat fewer of the genes whose expression was reduced more than 4-fold, suggesting that these are direct targets of SOX9. The combination of RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq has provided a fuller understanding of the SOX9-controlled genetic program of chondrocytes.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107577. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The choroidal circulation plays a central role in maintaining the health of outer retina and photoreceptor function. Alterations in this circulation contribute to pathogenesis of many eye diseases including exudative age-related macular degeneration. Unfortunately, very little is known about the choroidal circulation and its molecular and cellular regulation. This has been further hampered by the lack of methods for routine culturing of choroidal endothelial cells (ChEC), especially from wild type and transgenic mice. Here we describe a method for isolation and culturing of mouse ChEC. We show that expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation, has a significant impact on phenotype of ChEC. ChEC from TSP1-deficient (TSP1-/-) mice were less proliferative and more apoptotic, less migratory and less adherent, and failed to undergo capillary morphogenesis in Matrigel. However, re-expression of TSP1 was sufficient to restore TSP1-/- ChEC migration and capillary morphogenesis. TSP1-/- ChEC expressed increased levels of TSP2, phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS), a marker of inflammation, which was associated with significantly higher level of NO and oxidative stress in these cells. Wild type and TSP1-/- ChEC produced similar levels of VEGF, although TSP1-/- ChEC exhibited increased levels of VEGF-R1 and pSTAT3. Other signaling pathways including Src, Akt, and MAPKs were not dramatically affected by the lack of TSP1. Together our results demonstrate an important autocrine role for TSP1 in regulation of ChEC phenotype.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e116423. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Significance: The endothelium regulates vessel dilatation and constriction, balances hemostasis and inhibits thrombosis. Additionally, pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules orchestrate proliferation, survival and migration of endothelial cells. Regulation of all these processes requires fine-tuning of signaling pathways, which can easily be tricked into running the opposite direction when exogenous or endogenous signals get out of hand. Surprisingly, some critical regulators of physiological endothelial functions can turn malicious by mere alternative splicing leading to the expression of protein isoforms with opposite functions. Recent advances: While reviewing the evidence of alternative splicing on cellular physiology, it became evident, that expression of splice factors and their activities are regulated by externally triggered signaling cascades. Furthermore, genome-wide identification of RNA-binding sites of splicing regulatory proteins now offer a glimpse into the splicing code responsible for alternative splicing of molecules regulating endothelial functions. Critical issues: Due to the constantly growing number of transcript and protein isoforms it will become more and more important to identify and characterize all transcripts and proteins regulating endothelial cell functions. One critical issue will be a non-ambiguous nomenclature to keep consistency throughout different laboratories. Future directions: RNA-deep sequencing focusing on exon-exon-junction reads to more reliably identify alternative splicing events combined with functional analyses will uncover more splice variants contributing to or inhibiting proper endothelial functions. In addition, understanding the signals mediating alternative splicing and its regulation might allow to derive new strategies to preserve endothelial function by suppressing or upregulating specific protein isoforms.Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 09/2014; · 7.67 Impact Factor