Azelastine reduces mediators of inflammation in patients with nasal polyps.
ABSTRACT Nasal polyps affect approximately 4% of the population in the western world. The etiology of this disease is unknown, although inflammatory mechanisms may play an important role. In preceding studies we and others have shown that besides H1-antagonism, azelastine influences the immigration and activation of inflammatory cells. In this open label study in 16 patients with nasal polyps and perennial mite-allergic rhinitis, the effect of azelastine nasal spray twice daily 0.14 mg to each nostril on recurrence of nasal polyposis after endonasal surgery was evaluated. One patient dropped out after 3 months, unwilling to take further medication. Clinical and laboratory data of 15 patients were recorded over 25 weeks in a total of seven visits. Of these one patient needed nasal budesonide during the 4 weeks between visits 3 and 4. All other patients did not take any steroids before inclusion into the trial or during the 6-month observation period. Concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) for eosinophils, myeloperoxidase (MPO) for neutrophils and tryptase for mast cells were determined in nasal secretions before and after eight and 25 weeks of treatment using double antibody radioimmunoassays, because these have been demonstrated to be good inflammatory markers in nasal diseases. Mean concentrations of MPO decreased from 2724 ng/mL to 1610 ng/mL (p = 0.0015) over the entire treatment period. ECP decreased from 458 ng/mL to 264 ng/mL (p = 0.0342). Tryptase decreased from 37.9 ng/mL to 22.4 ng/mL (p = 0.0574). These data were consistent with a significant decrease in clinical symptoms. Thus, azelastine seems to have an inhibitory effect on eosinophil and neutrophil activation in patients with nasal polyps and mite allergy.
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ABSTRACT: This guidance for the management of patients with rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The recommendations are based on evidence and expert opinion and are evidence graded. These guidelines are for the benefit of both adult physicians and paediatricians treating allergic conditions. Rhinosinusitis implies inflammation of the nose and sinuses which may or may not have an infective component and includes nasal polyposis. Acute rhinosinusitis lasts up to 12 weeks and resolves completely. Chronic rhinosinusitis persists over 12 weeks and may involve acute exacerbations. Rhinosinusitis is common, affecting around 15% of the population and causes significant reduction in quality of life. The diagnosis is based largely on symptoms with confirmation by nasendoscopy. Computerized tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging are abnormal in approximately one third of the population so are not recommended for routine diagnosis but should be reserved for those with acute complications, diagnostic uncertainty or failed medical therapy. Underlying conditions such as immune deficiency, Wegener's granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, aspirin hypersensitivity and allergic fungal sinusitis may present as rhinosinusitis. There are few good quality trials in this area but the available evidence suggests that treatment is primarily medical, involving douching, corticosteroids, antibiotics, anti-leukotrienes, and anti-histamines. Endoscopic sinus surgery should be considered for complications, anatomical variations causing local obstruction, allergic fungal disease or patients who remain very symptomatic despite medical treatment. Further well conducted trials in clearly defined patient groups are needed to improve management.Clinical & Experimental Allergy 12/2007; 38(2):260 - 275. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2007.02889.x · 4.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H(1)-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1) diagnosis of the cause(s), (2) patient education and monitoring, (3) avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4) pharmacotherapy, and (5) immunotherapy (for patients with allergic rhinitis) or surgery for patients whose condition is otherwise uncontrolled.International Journal of General Medicine 04/2010; 3:69-91.
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents) 10/2011; 10(3):215-229. DOI:10.2174/1871523011109030215