Consanguineous marriages in the United Arab Emirates.
ABSTRACT This study examines the frequency of consanguineous marriage and the coefficient of inbreeding in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study was conducted in Al Ain and Dubai cities between October 1994 and March 1995. A sample of 2033 married UAE females aged 15 years and over participated. The degree of consanguinity between each female and her spouse, and the degree of consanguinity between their parents were recorded. The rate of consanguinity in the present generation was high (50.5%) with a coefficient of inbreeding of 0.0222. The commonest type of consanguineous marriage was between first cousins (26.2%). Double first cousin marriages were common (3.5%) compared to other populations. The consanguinity rate in the UAE has increased from 39% to 50.5% in one generation. The level of consanguinity was higher in Al Ain (54.2%) than in Dubai (40%).
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ABSTRACT: We propose that conflict between paternally and maternally derived genes in the fetus explains three apparently unrelated observations in epidemiological studies of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2): (i) low birth weight is a risk factor for the development of DM2, (ii) there is a high prevalence of low birth weight among babies of fathers who develop DM2, and (iii) an exceptionally high prevalence of DM2 exists in modern day Arabs. Genetic conflict is caused by a particular relationship between the parents, their genes and their offspring: (i) mothers are sometimes polyandrous i.e. have children with more than one man, (ii) mothers provide more biological resources to the fetus than fathers, and (iii) the genes that regulate fetal growth come from both parents and both sets of genes determine the use of resources which are only those of the mother. There is a tendency for maternally derived genes (that promote fetal growth) to be suppressed, in order to spare use of mother's resources, while the same paternally derived genes tend to be expressed (to enhance use of the mother's resources). These same genes are pleiotropic: they affect not only fetal growth (birth weight) but also insulin resistance and hence the development of DM2. Polyandry increases differences in the expression between two parental alleles in the fetus i.e. increases genetic conflict and results in the production of bigger babies whereas monandry has the opposite effect. Consequently, parent-of-origin-biased expression of pleiotropic developmental genes could explain why smaller babies are more common when the fathers have DM2. Similarly less genetic conflict in Arabs (resulting from the tradition of strict monandry, the practice of levirate, and preference for a paternal cousin as spouse) could explain, at least in part, their exceptionally high prevalence of DM2. This hypothesis links human mate selection with the risk of developing DM2.Medical Hypotheses 01/2013; 80(4). DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2012.12.036 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SummaryA total of 3961 married couples from six major geographical areas representing the South Sinai governorates in Egypt were studied to assess the rate of consanguineous marriage. The population of six selected areas (St Catherines, Nuweiba, Abu Rudeis, Ras Sudr, El Tor and Abu Zenima) were subdivided into Bedouin, urban and mixed populations. A questionnaire-based interview was conducted showing that the consanguinity rate in this region is 37.5%, with the highest rate recorded in Abu Rudeis (52.3%) and lowest rate in Nuweiba (24.1%). Consanguinity was significantly higher among the Bedouin population compared with the urban population in Abu Rudeis, Ras Sudr, El Tor and Abu Zenima, while in St Catherines and Nuweiba there was no statistically significant difference. Among consanguineous couples, 5%, 60% and 35% were double first cousins, first cousins and second cousins respectively. The mean inbreeding coefficient α of the studied population was 0.01845.Journal of Biosocial Science 05/2012; 45(1):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S002193201200020X · 0.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The United Arab Emirates inhabitants are ethnically diverse, with ancestries from Arabia, Persia, Baluchistan, and Africa. However, the majority of the current five million inhabitants are expatriates from the Asian subcontinent, Middle Eastern, African, and European countries. Consanguineous marriages within most UAE subpopulations are still the norm, leading to the formation of isolates and higher frequencies of recessive conditions. The UAE is ranked sixth in terms of prevalence of birth defects, with more than 270 genetic disorders reported in the national population. The UAE has high frequencies of blood disorders including thalassemias, sickle cell disease, and G6PD. In addition, certain genetic conditions are relatively common including cystic fibrosis, Joubert, and Meckel syndromes. Furthermore, numerous rare congenital malformations and metabolic disorders have been reported. We review the single gene disorders that have been studied at the molecular level in the UAE (which currently stand at 76) and compile the mutations found. Several novel (p.S2439fs) mutations have been reported including c.7317delA in NF1, c.5C>T (p.A2V) in DKC1, c.1766T>A (p.I589N) in TP63, and c.2117G>T (p.R706L) in VLDLR. We hope that this review will form the basis to establish a UAE mutations database and serve as a model for the collection of mutations of a country.Human Mutation 05/2010; 31(5):505-20. DOI:10.1002/humu.21232 · 5.05 Impact Factor