Changing epidemiology of injury-related pediatric mortality in a rural state: implications for injury control.
ABSTRACT To document the current epidemiology of pediatric injury-related deaths in a rural state and evaluate changes over time.
Retrospective review of injury-related deaths in children less than 15 years of age. Data were obtained from death certificates and coroner, autopsy, prehospital, and hospital records. Analysis was done of the mechanism of injury, age, sex, race, location of incident, toxicology, and safety device use. Comparisons with analogous data collected from an earlier time period were made.
The state of Montana, from October 1989 to September 1992.
Deaths per 100,000 population, intentionality of injury, mechanism of injury, use of protective devices, and comparisons with previous data (1980-1985) collected by Baker and Waller (Childhood injury: State by state mortality facts. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Injury Prevention Center, 1989;148-152).
Of 121 patients reviewed, 56% were male and 44% were female. Mean age was 7.0 years (median, 8.0). Eighty-one percent of patients were Caucasian, and 16% were Native American. The leading cause of injury was motor vehicle crashes, which was followed by drowning, unintentional firearm injuries, deaths related to house fires, homicides, and suicides. Overall, 87% of injuries were unintentional and 13% were intentional, with 62% of these suicides and 38% homicides. When considered independently of intent, firearm-related injuries ranked second. Earlier data showed motor vehicle crashes ranking second, unintentional firearm injuries seventh, and homicide fourth. Comparison of death rates per 100,000 people for the two time periods showed increases in suicide deaths (3.2 vs 0.8) and unintentional firearm injury deaths (2.3 vs 0.6).
The epidemiology of rural pediatric injury-related deaths has changed. Deaths related to suicide and firearms have increased. Violent deaths related to injuries caused by firearms are at a magnitude approaching all other causes. These findings have implications for public health education and injury control strategies in rural areas.
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ABSTRACT: The rural environment is not as wholesome as some might think. In fact, smoking, drinking, illicit drug use, and obesity are more prevalent in rural than in urban youngsters. Childhood mortality is higher in rural areas, with drowning, motor vehicle accidents, firearm injuries, and farm machinery accidents as the leading causes. Air and water quality are monitored less and actually may be worse in the country than in urban areas. This article describes children's health problems associated with the rural environment and provides a list of resources for addressing these problems.Pediatric Clinics of North America 03/2007; 54(1):121-33, ix. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As participation in junior, high-school and college sports has increased dramatically over the last three decades, sports injuries have increased commensurately. In the US alone, sports-related injuries account for 2.6 million visits to the emergency room made by children and young adults (aged 5-24 years). Injuries sustained by high-school athletes have resulted in 500000 doctor visits, 30000 hospitalisations and a total cost to the healthcare system of nearly 2 billion dollars per year. Sports injury surveillance studies have long formed the backbone of injury prevention research, serving to highlight the types and patterns of injury that merit further investigation. Injury surveillance studies have been integral in guiding rule changes, equipment improvement and training regimens that prevent injury. Despite findings that the methodology of injury surveillance studies may significantly influence the design and efficacy of preventative interventions, relatively few sources address epidemiological considerations involved in such studies. The purpose of this review is 3-fold. First, to perform a review of the current injury surveillance literature in order to identify key epidemiological and methodological issues that arise when reading or conducting an injury surveillance study. Second, to identify and describe how injury surveillance studies have addressed these issues. Third, to provide recommendations about the identified issues in order to guide clinicians in the interpretation of data presented in such studies. Searches of Ovid MEDLINE (1966-present) and PubMed were performed. Thirty-three descriptive and review articles addressing epidemiological and methodological considerations in injury surveillance were selected, as well as 54 cohort studies and studies with an experimental design. Data with respect to each study's treatment of the three epidemiological issues of interest were extracted and synthesised into a table. This review identifies the following three key epidemiological issues to consider when reading injury surveillance literature or when designing an injury surveillance study: (i) the definition of a sports injury; (ii) the denominator with which injuries are reported; and (iii) the method of data collection. A meaningful definition of injury should incorporate time lost from participation in order to reduce the bias associated with estimates of incidence. The use of multiple denominators (e.g. both athlete-hours of exposure and total athletes) provides the most precise information about injury rate and injury risk. The method of data collection that captures the widest range of injuries, while also allowing for the collection of exposure data, will vary depending on geographical location and the organisation of youth sports in that area.Sports Medicine 02/2007; 37(3):265-78. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the epidemiology and trends of traumatic deaths among children and adolescents in Manipal, Southern India. Analysis of all trauma deaths in children and adolescents aged between 1 and 19 years, autopsied between January 1994 and December 2005. The study is based on autopsy records, information furnished by the police, and chemical analysis report. There has been a substantial decline in the incidence of traumatic deaths among children and adolescents during 1994 to 2005. Road traffic injuries were responsible for maximum mortalities (38.4%), followed by those because of burns (24.9%) and poisoning (15.9%). Males comprised 59.6% of cases. Male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Males predominantly died of traffic injuries (45.2%), whereas females as a result of burns (37.4%). There was more than two-fold increase in injury-related mortalities from childhood to adolescence (1:2.3). Among children and adolescents, traffic injuries and burns are responsible for maximum injury-related mortalities in males and females, respectively. More injury reducing measures are required for effective reduction in traumatic deaths.The Journal of trauma 07/2008; 64(6):1600-7. · 2.35 Impact Factor