Expression and localization of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in tooth tissues.
ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been detected in forming dental enamel and are thought to play an important role during enamel biomineralization. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a membrane bound member of the MMP gene family that has previously been shown to be expressed by cells associated with bone and cartilage formation (osteoclasts, osteoblasts and chondrocytes). Thus, we asked if MT1-MMP was also expressed by the cells responsible for the formation of enamel and dentin. A porcine MT1-MMP cDNA composed of 3284 bp was isolated from an enamel organ-specific cDNA library. Multiple tissue Northern blot analysis revealed that the MT1-MMP message was expressed highly in the enamel organ and pulp organ when compared to the expression levels observed in other non-mineralizing tissues. Northern blot analysis of stage-specific enamel organs (early secretory, late secretory, or maturation stage) and their corresponding pulp organs revealed that MT1-MMP expression increased as the dentin matured. In the enamel organs, however, the MT1-MMP message level became reduced only during the late secretory stage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that MT1-MMP was present on the surface of the cells (ameloblasts and odontoblasts) responsible for dentin and enamel formation. Thus, MT1-MMP is highly expressed in developing tooth tissues and may play a role in the biomineralization of enamel and dentin.
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ABSTRACT: Lanthanideradioactive wastes are generated during the LiCl-KCl waste salt purification process developed in KAERI.The phosphate-based ceramics were studied for the immobilization of the wastes. The immobilization matrix developed in this study(ZITceramic wasteform)composed of zinc titanate(Zn2TiO4), CaHPO4, SiO2and B2O3. The lanthanide oxides were reacted with CaHPO4during solid phase sintering. The reaction producs of lanthanides phosphate(LnPO4), which havea composition similar to monazite, has been developed as a high-level nuclear waste host. The physico-chemical properties (XRD, SEM, density and thermal conductivity) and leach resistance of the borosilicate glass and ZIT wasteforms are discussedin this paper.Energy Procedia 01/2011; 7:529-533.
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ABSTRACT: This review focuses on recent discoveries and delves in detail about what is known about each of the proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) and proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-related peptidase-4) that are secreted into the enamel matrix. After an overview of enamel development, this review focuses on these enamel proteins by describing their nomenclature, tissue expression, functions, proteinase activation, and proteinase substrate specificity. These proteins and their respective null mice and human mutations are also evaluated to shed light on the mechanisms that cause nonsyndromic enamel malformations termed amelogenesis imperfecta. Pertinent controversies are addressed. For example, do any of these proteins have a critical function in addition to their role in enamel development? Does amelogenin initiate crystallite growth, does it inhibit crystallite growth in width and thickness, or does it do neither? Detailed examination of the null mouse literature provides unmistakable clues and/or answers to these questions, and this data is thoroughly analyzed. Striking conclusions from this analysis reveal that widely held paradigms of enamel formation are inadequate. The final section of this review weaves the recent data into a plausible new mechanism by which these enamel matrix proteins support and promote enamel development.ISRN dentistry. 01/2013; 2013:684607.