Expression and localization of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in tooth tissues.
ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been detected in forming dental enamel and are thought to play an important role during enamel biomineralization. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a membrane bound member of the MMP gene family that has previously been shown to be expressed by cells associated with bone and cartilage formation (osteoclasts, osteoblasts and chondrocytes). Thus, we asked if MT1-MMP was also expressed by the cells responsible for the formation of enamel and dentin. A porcine MT1-MMP cDNA composed of 3284 bp was isolated from an enamel organ-specific cDNA library. Multiple tissue Northern blot analysis revealed that the MT1-MMP message was expressed highly in the enamel organ and pulp organ when compared to the expression levels observed in other non-mineralizing tissues. Northern blot analysis of stage-specific enamel organs (early secretory, late secretory, or maturation stage) and their corresponding pulp organs revealed that MT1-MMP expression increased as the dentin matured. In the enamel organs, however, the MT1-MMP message level became reduced only during the late secretory stage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that MT1-MMP was present on the surface of the cells (ameloblasts and odontoblasts) responsible for dentin and enamel formation. Thus, MT1-MMP is highly expressed in developing tooth tissues and may play a role in the biomineralization of enamel and dentin.
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported on the purification of a serum calcium-decreasing factor, referred to as caldecrin, from porcine pancreas, that is thought to be a serine protease (Tomomura, A., Fukushige, T., Noda, T., Noikura, T., and Saheki, T. (1992) FEBS Lett. 301, 277-281). In the present study, we purified caldecrin from rat pancreas and determined its primary structure by cDNA cloning. The predicted caldecrin protein is presumed to be synthesized as a preproenzyme of 268 amino acids with a signal peptide of 16 amino acids and an activation peptide of 13 amino acids, and is, with the exception of a central region, almost identical to the reported rat pancreatic elastase IV sequence. The caldecrin gene is selectively expressed in the pancreas, as judged by Northern blot analysis. After expression in BMT-10 cells, immunoreactive caldecrin was found in the culture supernatant, and it inhibited the parathyroid hormone-stimulated 45Ca release from cultured fetal long bones. Catalytic site mutants were synthesized in a baculovirus system, and recombinant mutants also decreased the serum calcium level of mice. These data implicate caldecrin, a protease closely related to elastase IV, in the regulation of blood calcium levels.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/1996; 270(51):30315-21. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In mammals, the organic matrix of developing enamel is dominated by amelogenins. To investigate the expression of proteins secreted into the developing enamel matrix, we have constructed a porcine enamel organ epithelia-specific cDNA library. The amelogenin fraction of the cDNA library was characterized by the cloning of amelogenin-specific polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) amplification products, 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and by helper phage rescue of unamplified clones. Clones were characterized that encode porcine amelogenin isoforms 173, 157, 56, 41, and 40 amino acids in length. The structure of the porcine amelogenin gene differs from that of any of those yet described. There are two homologous but distinct exons 1, 2, and 7. One of the two exon 7s can vary in length depending upon the selection of either of two polyadenylation signal/cleavage sites. As a rule, a given exon 1 always pairs with the same exon 2 but can be associated with either exon 7. Despite significant sequence divergence within these exons, no differences are observed in exons 3, 5, and 6. We interpret these findings as evidence of a single amelogenin gene expressed from two promoters; however, the results do not exclude the existence of a second amelogenin gene. The variability generated through the use of alternate promoters and exon 7s primarily affects the non-coding regions of the message. A given amelogenin isoform expressed from the two promoters displays four amino acid differences within the signal peptide, while the secreted proteins are identical. Similarly, the alternative use of exon 7 does not alter the structure of the protein products. The pattern of RNA splicing of amelogenin pre-mRNAs is different for the transcripts expressed from the two promoters. The 173- and the 56-residue amelogenins can be expressed from either promoter, while the 157-residue amelogenin is generated by only one of the two promoters.Journal of Dental Research 11/1996; 75(10):1735-41. · 3.83 Impact Factor
- Journal of Biological Chemistry - J BIOL CHEM. 01/1995; 270(39):23013-23020.