Expression and localization of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in tooth tissues.
ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been detected in forming dental enamel and are thought to play an important role during enamel biomineralization. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a membrane bound member of the MMP gene family that has previously been shown to be expressed by cells associated with bone and cartilage formation (osteoclasts, osteoblasts and chondrocytes). Thus, we asked if MT1-MMP was also expressed by the cells responsible for the formation of enamel and dentin. A porcine MT1-MMP cDNA composed of 3284 bp was isolated from an enamel organ-specific cDNA library. Multiple tissue Northern blot analysis revealed that the MT1-MMP message was expressed highly in the enamel organ and pulp organ when compared to the expression levels observed in other non-mineralizing tissues. Northern blot analysis of stage-specific enamel organs (early secretory, late secretory, or maturation stage) and their corresponding pulp organs revealed that MT1-MMP expression increased as the dentin matured. In the enamel organs, however, the MT1-MMP message level became reduced only during the late secretory stage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that MT1-MMP was present on the surface of the cells (ameloblasts and odontoblasts) responsible for dentin and enamel formation. Thus, MT1-MMP is highly expressed in developing tooth tissues and may play a role in the biomineralization of enamel and dentin.
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ABSTRACT: This review focuses on recent discoveries and delves in detail about what is known about each of the proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) and proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-related peptidase-4) that are secreted into the enamel matrix. After an overview of enamel development, this review focuses on these enamel proteins by describing their nomenclature, tissue expression, functions, proteinase activation, and proteinase substrate specificity. These proteins and their respective null mice and human mutations are also evaluated to shed light on the mechanisms that cause nonsyndromic enamel malformations termed amelogenesis imperfecta. Pertinent controversies are addressed. For example, do any of these proteins have a critical function in addition to their role in enamel development? Does amelogenin initiate crystallite growth, does it inhibit crystallite growth in width and thickness, or does it do neither? Detailed examination of the null mouse literature provides unmistakable clues and/or answers to these questions, and this data is thoroughly analyzed. Striking conclusions from this analysis reveal that widely held paradigms of enamel formation are inadequate. The final section of this review weaves the recent data into a plausible new mechanism by which these enamel matrix proteins support and promote enamel development.ISRN dentistry. 01/2013; 2013:684607.
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ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in dentin are believed to participate in various physiological and pathological events in coronal dentin, but their exact source and location is not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of gelatinases in decalcified rat molars crowns by in situ zymography. Hemi-mandibles of five male Wistar rats were fixed in paraformaldehyde, decalcified in EDTA and glycerol solution and embedded in paraffin. Sections from the region of molar teeth were incubated with or without DQ gelatin in 50mM Tris-CaCl(2) at 37°C for 2h and observed by means of confocal microscopy. Gelatinolytic activity was observed throughout the coronal dentin with varying intensities in different locations. High gelatinase activity was observed in the dentinal tubules, dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) and predentin, and it was weaker and less uniform in the intertubular dentin. This study shows that the location of gelatinase and relative activity can be detected by means of in situ zymography and confocal microcopy, and this methodology may provide a useful tool in studies on the role of gelatinases in tooth development, maturation and in pathological conditions.Acta histochemica 08/2012; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Western blots analyses and gelatin zymography established the presence of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in the forming zone of rat incisor. Light microscope immunohistochemistry carried out on undemineralized material provided evidence for strong MMP-2 staining in the secretory ameloblasts, odontoblasts, in the enamel organ, and in the pulp. A weaker staining was observed in predentin and in the outer part of the forming enamel. Using MMP-9 antibodies, the staining was generally weak, except for the secretory ameloblasts that were positively stained. Electron microscopic immunohistochemistry of undemineralized sections revealed a close association between gold-antibodies complexes and cytoskeletal microfilaments in the cytosol of secretory ameloblasts and odontoblasts, within the rough endoplasmic reticulum and along the plasma membrane. The striking feature of MMP-2 and -9 electron immunostaining was the particularly high labeling in the mantle dentin. By contrast, staining of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and -2) was lowest in this region. We suggest that this uneven distribution may have some functional implications.Connective Tissue Research 02/2003; 44(3-4):143-53. · 1.79 Impact Factor