Strong founder effect for a transglutaminase 1 gene mutation in lamellar ichthyosis and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma from Norway.
ABSTRACT Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder of keratinisation. It was recently shown that mutations in the transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) gene may be associated with the clinical subtypes lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). Thirty-six Norwegian families with LI and seven with non-bullous CIE were studied with microsatellite markers linked to the TGMI gene. One common haplotype for two markers was found on 74% of disease associated chromosomes. Three individuals homozygous for the common haplotype, two affected by LI and one affected by CIE, were analysed for mutations in the TGM1 gene. All three patients were found homozygous for a single A to G transition located in the canonical splice acceptor site of intron 5. Probands from the remaining 40 families with LI and CIE were screened for this mutation and the A to G transition was found on 61 out of 72 alleles associated with LI and on 9 out of 15 alleles associated with CIE. These findings suggest a single founder mutation for the majority of patients with LI and CIE in Norway. The 2526A-->G mutation results in the insertion of a guanosine at position 877 (876insG) in the mature cDNA and the frame shift creates a premature termination at codon 293. The mutation was previously observed in one family with a resulting cDNA that included the entire intron 5. These results suggest that the mutation can result in variant transcripts in different individuals.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Ingrid Hausser, Aug 08, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Infants born with autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) are often encapsulated in a collodion membrane, which shows a lamellar or erythrodermic type of ichthyosis upon shedding. However, some babies show a nearly normal underlying skin after several weeks, a phenotype called "self-healing collodion baby" (SHCB). Mutations in two genes, TGM1 and ALOX12B, have previously been implicated in the etiology of SHCB, but the full genotypic spectrum remains to be determined. DNA sequencing in 11 Swedish and 4 Danish SHCB patients showed ALOX12B mutations in eight cases, ALOXE3 mutations in three cases, and TGM1 mutations in one case. In three patients, we could not find mutations in any of the known ARCI genes. In all cases, a spontaneous shedding of the collodion membrane occurred 2-4 weeks after birth. When re-examined at 2-37 years of age, the patients showed skin xerosis, a mild or focal scaling, palmar hyperlinearity with keratoderma, and a frequent appearance of red cheeks and anhidrosis. Thus, we propose replacing SHCB with the term "self-improving collodion ichthyosis" (SICI). In conclusion, ALOX12B mutations are the leading cause of SICI in Scandinavia, followed by ALOXE3 mutations, which have not been previously associated with this variant of ARCI.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 11/2009; 130(2):438-43. DOI:10.1038/jid.2009.346 · 6.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of rare cornification diseases. Germline mutations in TGM1 are the most common cause of ARCI in the United States. TGM1 encodes for the TGase-1 enzyme that functions in the formation of the cornified cell envelope. Structurally defective or attenuated cornified cell envelop have been shown in epidermal scales and appendages of ARCI patients with TGM1 mutations. We review the clinical manifestations as well as the molecular genetics of ARCI. In addition, we characterized 115 TGM1 mutations reported in 234 patients from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds (Caucasion Americans, Norwegians, Swedish, Finnish, German, Swiss, French, Italian, Dutch, Portuguese, Hispanics, Iranian, Tunisian, Moroccan, Egyptian, Afghani, Hungarian, African Americans, Korean, Japanese and South African). We report 23 novel mutations: 71 (62%) missense; 20 (17%) nonsense; 9 (8%) deletion; 8 (7%) splice-site, and 7 (6%) insertion. The c.877-2A>G was the most commonly reported TGM1 mutation accounting for 34% (147 of 435) of all TGM1 mutant alleles reported to date. It had been shown that this mutation is common among North American and Norwegian patients due to a founder effect. Thirty-one percent (36 of 115) of all mutations and 41% (29 of 71) of missense mutations occurred in arginine residues in TGase-1. Forty-nine percent (35 of 71) of missense mutations were within CpG dinucleotides, and 74% (26/35) of these mutations were C>T or G>A transitions. We constructed a model of human TGase-1 and showed that all mutated arginines that reside in the two beta-barrel domains and two (R142 and R143) in the beta-sandwich are located at domain interfaces. In conclusion, this study expands the TGM1 mutation spectrum and summarizes the current knowledge of TGM1 mutations. The high frequency of mutated arginine codons in TGM1 may be due to the deamination of 5' methylated CpG dinucleotides.Human Mutation 04/2009; 30(4):537-47. DOI:10.1002/humu.20952 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 12R-lipoxygenase (12R-LOX) represents a key enzyme of a recently identified eicosanoid pathway in the skin that plays an essential role in the establishment and/or maintenance of the epidermal barrier function. Genetic studies show that loss-of-function mutations in ALOX12B, encoding 12R-LOX, and in ALOXE3, encoding another closely related LOX involved in this pathway, are the second most common cause for autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). To investigate the pathomechanism of ARCI and the function of 12R-LOX, we recently generated a 12R-LOX knockout model. 12R-LOX-deficient mice die rapidly after birth from severe barrier dysfunction without exhibiting an obvious cutaneous phenotype. Thus, we analyzed the adult phenotype of 12R-LOX(-/-) skin transplanted onto nude mice. 12R-LOX(-/-) skin develops an ichthyosiform appearance with thickening of the epidermis, hyperproliferation, hypergranulosis, focal parakeratosis, and severe hyperkeratosis. The adult mutant mouse skin phenotype closely reproduces the ichthyosis phenotype seen in patients with ALOX12B mutations. Western blot analysis revealed restoration of profilaggrin processing that used to be disturbed in neonatal mutant skin and overexpression of filaggrin, involucrin, and repetin. The results indicate that 12R-LOX knockout mice may represent a useful animal model for a detailed analysis of mechanisms involved in ARCI forms that are associated with impaired LOX metabolism.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 02/2009; 129(6):1429-36. DOI:10.1038/jid.2008.410 · 6.37 Impact Factor