Dentine hypersensitivity: the effects of brushing desensitizing toothpastes, their solid and liquid phases, and detergents on dentine and acrylic: studies in vitro.
ABSTRACT Dentine exhibiting symptoms of dentine hypersensitivity has tubules open at the dentine surface and patent to the pulp. The mechanisms whereby dentinal tubules are exposed is ill understood but probably involves a variety of abrasive and/or erosive agents. This study in vitro examined the quantitative and qualitative effects of toothpastes, their solid and liquid phases and detergents on dentine and acrylic. Abrasion of dentine and acrylic were measured by surfometry. Morphological changes to dentine were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Abrasion of dentine and acrylic by toothpastes increased with increasing brushstrokes with marked differences in the extent of abrasion between different pastes. Brushing dentine with water or detergents produced progressive abrasion but which appeared to plateau around 2 microm loss. Water and detergents produced minimal effects on acrylic. At 5000 strokes dentine abrasion by solid phases was less than the parent toothpastes but the ranking order of abrasivity was the same as the parent toothpastes. Loss of dentine produced by liquid phases was minimal and in the order of 1-2 microm. Observationally, all toothpastes removed at least the dentine smear layer to expose many tubules; with one desensitizing product leaving a particulate deposit occluding most tubules. The solid phases of the toothpaste produced identical morphological changes to the parent paste. The liquid phases and detergents all exposed dentinal tubules by 5000 strokes. Water had little or no effect on the dentine smear layer. It is concluded that toothpastes, solid phase, liquid phase and detergents have the potential to abrade or erode dentine to a variable degree and result in tubule exposure. The effects of the liquid phases and detergents appear limited to the removal of the smear layer. Such detrimental effects seen in vitro could have relevance to the aetiology and management of dentine hypersensitivity. Toothpaste formulations which despite exposing tubules have ingredients capable of occluding tubules may be an area of development for such products.
- SourceAvailable from: Maria angela pita Sobral[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence, clinical features, and risk factors of dentin hypersensitivity (DH) in a Brazilian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 300 patients at the Dentistry Clinic of the University of São Paulo participated in this study. The subjects completed a questionnaire regarding their personal information, the presence of DH, and some of its risk factors. Following completion of the questionnaire, a clinical examination was undertaken. To confirm the presence of DH, the subjects were evaluated with the use of a probe and cold air from a triple syringe. Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-square test and odds ratio, with the critical level p <0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of DH was 46 %. Females presented a higher prevalence than males (p <0.05). The left posterior region was affected by DH the most (maxilla = 41 % and mandible = 36 %). Cold was reported as the most common pain-inducing stimulus (88 %). The pain was described as "discomfort" by 51 % of the subjects with DH. Toothbrushing four times a day (p <0.05), toothbrushing with excessive force (p <0.05), bruxism (p <0.05), and gastroesophageal reflux (p <0.05) were strongly correlated with DH. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DH was particularly high. The risk factors for DH were gender (female), toothbrushing four times a day, toothbrushing with excessive force, bruxism, and gastroesophageal reflux. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: DH was a common finding in this population suggesting that preventive measures considering its risk factors must be implemented in order to reduce or control the symptoms.Clinical Oral Investigations 06/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The paper's aim is to review dentin hypersensitivity (DHS), discussing pain mechanisms and aetiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature was reviewed using search engines with MESH terms, DH pain mechanisms and aetiology (including abrasion, erosion and periodontal disease). RESULTS: The many hypotheses proposed for DHS attest to our lack of knowledge in understanding neurophysiologic mechanisms, the most widely accepted being the hydrodynamic theory. Dentin tubules must be patent from the oral environment to the pulp. Dentin exposure, usually at the cervical margin, is due to a variety of processes involving gingival recession or loss of enamel, predisposing factors being periodontal disease and treatment, limited alveolar bone, thin biotype, erosion and abrasion. CONCLUSIONS: The current pain mechanism of DHS is thought to be the hydrodynamic theory. The initiation and progression of DHS are influenced by characteristics of the teeth and periodontium as well as the oral environment and external influences. Risk factors are numerous often acting synergistically and always influenced by individual susceptibility. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Whilst the pain mechanism of DHS is not well understood, clinicians need to be mindful of the aetiology and risk factors in order to manage patients' pain and expectations and prevent further dentin exposure with subsequent sensitivity.Clinical Oral Investigations 12/2012; · 2.20 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the immediate and short-term effects of laser neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) irradiation and in-office desensitizing treatment on dentin tubule occlusion. Background data: Literature shows a lack of long-lasting treatments for dentin hypersensitivity. Methods: Forty-eight dentin slabs (4×4×2 mm) were ground flat, polished, and treated with 27% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to open the dentinal tubules. Specimens were randomly divided into the following experimental groups (n=12): Group 1: Control (no treatment); Group 2: Nd:YAG laser irradiation (100 mJ, 85 J/cm(2) per pulse with a quartz fiber of 400 μm, in scanning movements); Group 3: In-office prophylaxis with pumice; Group 4: In-office Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief™ Desensitizing Paste. Treatments were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. After treatment, the specimens were submitted to a sequence of erosive and abrasive challenges, twice a day for 5 days. The specimens were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by scanning electron microscopy immediately after treatment and after 4 and 5 days. The response variable was the amount of occluded dentin tubules per area, determined by three different examiners with the use of visual criteria, with a standardized grade created in the PowerPoint program. Data were compared with ANOVA and Tukey's test, considering a 5% significance level. Results: Immediately after treatment, a reduction in the number of opened dentin tubules was observed for the laser group when compared with the control group (p<0.05). After the experimental procedures, there were no quantitative differences between the amount of opened dentin tubules for all groups; however, micrographs showed some qualitative tubule occlusion for the laser group after the erosive/abrasive challenge. Conclusions: only laser irradiation was capable of immediately sealing the dentinal tubules; however, none of the treatments showed efficacy in maintaining tubule occlusion after the chemical and mechanical challenges.Photomedicine and laser surgery 05/2013; · 1.76 Impact Factor