More about: irinotecan-related cholinergic syndrome induced by coadministration of oxaliplatin.

JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute (Impact Factor: 15.16). 02/1999; 91(1):91-2. DOI: 10.1093/jnci/91.1.91a
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    ABSTRACT: – Although progress in cancer research is paralleled by the discovery and development of novel chemotherapeutic agents, the benefits of these agents are offset by their side-effect profiles. Of the numerous adverse effects associated with antineoplastic drugs, peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent and is often debilitating. This article reviews the treatment options—both primary and secondary—for neuropathic complications of cancer therapy. – Before a potentially neurotoxic chemotherapeutic regimen is started, patients should undergo 1) a baseline neurologic history for possible coexisting risk factors for neuropathy; 2) physical evaluation; and 3) if indicated, electrophysiologic testing, including nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Patients should be followed closely for the development of neuropathic signs and symptoms. When symptoms (eg, paresthesias or pain) or deficits (eg, weakness) develop, their severity and their effect on quality of life will determine whether the neurotoxic chemotherapy should be continued at a lower dose or discontinued. Neuropathic pain should be treated aggressively with a stepwise approach. The decision to initiate therapy should be guided first by the severity of pain and second by the convenience of dosing and the side-effect profile of the medication. – Specific antineuropathic pain therapy may begin with a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), titrated to 100 to 150 mg/d, unless anticholinergic side effects appear before this dosage is reached. The TCA may be replaced by or supplemented with antiepileptic agents, such as gabapentin, which is attractive because of its rapid dose titration (maximum, 3600 mg/d) and minimal interaction with other medications. – In addition to pharmacologic therapies targeting symptom management, new therapies directed at preventing the onset or progression of neurotoxicity are desperately needed.
    Current Treatment Options in Neurology 12/1999; 1(5):428-437. DOI:10.1007/s11940-996-0006-x · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FOLFIRINOX (FFX) was introduced to clinical practice in 2010 following publication of the PRODIGE 4/ACCORD 11 study, which compared this novel regimen to gemcitabine in metastatic pancreatic cancer. Median overall survival, progression-free survival, and objective responses were all superior with FFX and there was improved time to definitive deterioration in quality of life. Despite initial concerns over toxicity, there has been rapid uptake of this regimen, both revolutionizing management and opening the door to innovative research. As experience with FFX has accrued, many questions have arisen including the management of toxicities, the impact of frequent modifications, the optimal number of cycles, integration with other regimens and modalities, interpretation of radiologic and serologic response, utility of molecular signatures, and potential benefit in unique clinical settings such as pre- and postsurgery. This review will closely examine these issues, not only to summarize current knowledge but also to fuel scientific debate. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Cancer Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/cam4.433
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    ABSTRACT: Camptothecins represent an established class of effective agents that selectively target topoisomerase I by trapping the catalytic intermediate of the topoisomerase I-DNA reaction, the cleavage complex. The water-soluble salt camptothecin-sodium — introduced in early trials in the 1960s — was highly toxic in animals, whereas the semisynthetic derivatives irinotecan and topotecan did not cause haemorrhagic cystitis because of their higher physicochemical stability and solubility at lower pH values. Myelosuppression, neutropenia and, to a lesser extent, thrombocytopenia are dose-limiting toxic effects of topotecan. In contrast to the structurally-related topotecan, irinotecan is a prodrug which has to be converted to SN-38, its active form. SN-38 is inactivated by conjugation, thus patients with Gilbert’s syndrome and other forms of genetic glucuronidation deficiency are at an increased risk of irinotecan-induced adverse effects, such as neutropenia and diarrhoea. The cytotoxic mechanism of podophyllotoxin is the inhibition of topoisomerase II. Common adverse effects of etoposide include dose-limiting myelosuppression. Hypersensitivity reactions are more common with etoposide and teniposide than with etoposide phosphate because the formulations of the former contain sensitising solubilisers. Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia occur in 65% and 80%, respectively, of patients after administration of conventional doses of teniposide. Anorexia, vomiting and diarrhoea are generally of mild severity after administration of conventional doses of topoisomerase II inhibitors. Clinical pharmacokinetic studies have revealed substantial interindividual variabilities regarding the area under the concentration-time curve values and steady-state concentrations for all drugs reviewed in this article. Irinotecan, etoposide and teniposide are degraded via complex metabolic pathways. In contrast, topotecan primarily undergoes renal excretion. Regarding etoposide and teniposide, the extent of catechol formation over time during drug metabolism may be associated with a higher risk for secondary malignancies.
    Drug Safety 29(3). DOI:10.2165/00002018-200629030-00005 · 2.62 Impact Factor

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