Weight control and risk factor reduction in obese subjects treated for 2 years with orlistat: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT Orlistat, a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor that reduces dietary fat absorption by approximately 30%, may promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.
To test the hypothesis that orlistat combined with dietary intervention is more effective than placebo plus diet for weight loss and maintenance over 2 years.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted from October 1992 to October 1995.
Obese adults (body mass index [weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], 30-43 kg/m2) evaluated at 18 US research centers.
Subjects received placebo plus a controlled-energy diet during a 4-week lead-in. On study day 1, the diet was continued and subjects were randomized to receive placebo 3 times a day or orlistat, 120 mg 3 times a day, for 52 weeks. After 52 weeks, subjects began a weight-maintenance diet, and the placebo group (n = 133) continued to receive placebo and orlistat-treated subjects were rerandomized to receive placebo 3 times a day (n = 138), orlistat, 60 mg (n = 152) or 120 mg (n = 153) 3 times a day, for an additional 52 weeks.
Body weight change and changes in blood pressure and serum lipid, glucose, and insulin levels.
A total of 1187 subjects entered the protocol, and 892 were randomly assigned on day 1 to double-blind treatment. For intent-to-treat analysis, 223 placebo-treated subjects and 657 orlistat-treated subjects were evaluated. During the first year orlistat-treated subjects lost more weight (mean +/- SEM, 8.76+/-0.37 kg) than placebo-treated subjects (5.81+/-0.67 kg) (P<.001). Subjects treated with orlistat, 120 mg 3 times a day, during year 1 and year 2 regained less weight during year 2 (3.2+/-0.45 kg; 35.2% regain) than those who received orlistat, 60 mg (4.26+/-0.57 kg; 51.3% regain), or placebo (5.63+/-0.42 kg; 63.4% regain) in year 2 (P<.001). Treatment with orlistat, 120 mg 3 times a day, was associated with improvements in fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin levels.
Two-year treatment with orlistat plus diet significantly promotes weight loss, lessens weight regain, and improves some obesity-related disease risk factors.
Annals of internal medicine 05/2004; 140(10):769. DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-140-10-200405180-00006 · 16.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes and obesity have a complex relationship; obesity is linked to insulin resistance, the precursor to type 2 diabetes. The management of obesity is an important method to delay onset of diabetes and improve the glycemic durability of antidiabetic agents. However, insulin and some of the oral hypoglycemic agents used to treat diabetes cause significant weight gain, and it is difficult for patients with diabetes to reduce and maintain their weight by life-style changes alone. Thus, antiobesity medications or bariatric surgery may be a necessary adjunct for certain obese patients with diabetes. In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate extended-release for the management of chronic weight, and approval for naltrexone/bupropion sustained-release as an adjunct to exercise and reduced caloric intake followed in 2014. Liraglutide is pending FDA approval for antiobesity drug. Here we review the efficacy of approved and new promising drugs for the management of obesity.12/2014; 29(4):410-7. DOI:10.3803/EnM.2014.29.4.410
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ABSTRACT: Clozapine is an antipsychotic drug with superior efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is associated with a low likelihood of extrapyramidal symptoms and other neurological side-effects but a high propensity to induce weight gain and general metabolic dysregulation. Various pharmacological and behavioral treatment approaches for reducing clozapine-associated weight gain exist in the literature; however, there are currently no clear clinical guidelines as to which method is preferred. The aim of the current review is to systematically summarize studies that have studied both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to attenuate or reverse clozapine-associated weight gain. A systematic review of EMBASE and MEDLINE databases of all articles published prior to January 2014 was conducted. Seventeen studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria and included in the review. Aripiprazole, fluvoxamine, metformin, and topiramate appear to be beneficial; however, available data are limited to between one and three randomized controlled trials per intervention. Orlistat shows beneficial effects, but in males only. Behavioral and nutritional interventions also show modest effects on decreasing clozapine-associated weight gain, although only a small number of such studies exist. While a number of pharmacological interventions can produce modest weight loss, each may be associated with negative side effects, which should be considered before beginning treatment. Given the pressing need to improve cardiometabolic health in most clozapine-treated patients, substantially more research is needed to develop sound clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of clozapine-associated weight gain.European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2015; 71(4). DOI:10.1007/s00228-015-1807-1 · 2.70 Impact Factor